(240)-343-2585

Our textbook defines social psychology as “… the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another” (Myers & Twenge, 2019, p. 2).

For this discussion, briefly describe one of the experiments* in our text and tell whether and how it does or does not align with the definition provided above. You will see that some of the examples/experiments/scenarios described in our textbook reveal a dark side of human nature. As we consider this from a Christian worldview perspective is there any hope for us?

*Use any experiment described in our textbook. To help you get started, here are some examples you may search for: Conformity: Asch, Zimbardo, Milgram; Social Learning/Aggression: Bobo the Doll; Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Rosenthal & Jacobson

Please review the Discussion Assignment Instructions  and interact with your classmates’ threads after you have submitted your thread in response to the provided prompt.

SOCIAL
PSYCHOLOGY

David G. Myers
Jean M. Twenge

13e

SOCIAL
PSYCHOLOGY

David G. Myers
Hope College

Jean M. Twenge
San Diego State University

13e

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, THIRTEENTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill
Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2016, 2013,
and 2010. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or
stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education,
including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast
for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
United States.

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ISBN 978-1-260-39711-6 (bound edition)
MHID 1-260-39711-4 (bound edition)

ISBN 978-1-259-91104-0 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-259-91104-7 (loose-leaf edition)

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Myers, David G., author. | Twenge, Jean M., author.
Title: Social psychology / David G. Myers, Hope College, Jean M. Twenge, San
 Diego State University.
Description: Thirteenth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, [2018] |
 Revised edition of the authors’ Social psychology, [2016]
Identifiers: LCCN 2018018043| ISBN 9781260397116 (hard cover : alk. paper) |
 ISBN 1260397114 (hard cover : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Social psychology.
Classification: LCC HM1033 .M944 2018 | DDC 302—dc23 LC record available at
 https://lccn.loc.gov/2018018043

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website
does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education
does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered

iii

DGM

For Dennis and Betty
kindred friends, servant leaders

JMT

For my daughters: Kate, Elizabeth, and Julia

iv Part One Social Thinking

Photo by Hope College Public Relations.
For more information, or to contact David Myers, visit
davidmyers.org. ©David Myers

Jean M. Twenge by Sandy Huffaker, Jr.
For more information, or to contact Jean Twenge, visit
www.jeantwenge.com ©Sandy Huffaker, Jr.

About the Authors

Since receiving his University of Iowa Ph.D., David G. Myers has professed psychology at Michigan’s Hope College. Hope College students have invited him to be their
commencement speaker and voted him “outstanding professor.”

With support from National Science Foundation grants,
Myers’ research has appeared in some three dozen scientific peri-
odicals, including Science, the American Scientist, Psychological
Science, and the American Psychologist.

He has also communicated psychological science through
articles in four dozen magazines, from Today’s Education to
Scientific American, and through his seventeen books, including
The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

Myers’ research and writings have been recognized by the Gordon
Allport Prize, by an “honored scientist” award from the Federa-
tion of Associations in the Brain and Behavioral Sciences, and
by the Award for Distinguished Service on Behalf of Personality-
Social Psychology.

He has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission,
helped found a center for families in poverty, and spoken to hun-
dreds of college and community groups. In recognition of his
efforts to transform the way America provides assistive listening
for people with hearing loss (see hearingloop.org), he has received
awards from the American Academy of Audiology, the Hearing
Loss Association of America, and the hearing industry.

David and Carol Myers have three children and one grandchild.

As Professor of Psychology at San Diego State University, Jean
M. Twenge has authored more than 140 scientific publications on
generational differences, cultural change, social rejection, digital
media use, gender roles, self-esteem, and narcissism. Her research
has been covered in Time, Newsweek, The New York Times, USA
Today, U.S. News and World Report, and The Washington Post, and
she has been featured on Today, Good Morning America, CBS
This Morning, Fox and Friends, NBC Nightly News, Dateline
NBC, and National Public Radio.

Dr. Twenge has drawn on her research in her books for a
broader audience, iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are
Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—And Com-
pletely Unprepared for Adulthood (2017) and Generation Me: Why
Today’s Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—
And More Miserable Than Ever Before (2nd ed., 2014). An article
by Dr. Twenge in The Atlantic was nominated for a National Maga-
zine Award. She frequently gives talks and seminars on genera-
tional differences to audiences such as college faculty and staff,
parent-teacher groups, military personnel, camp directors, and
corporate executives.

Jean Twenge grew up in Minnesota and Texas. She holds a
B.A. and M.A. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from
the University of Michigan. She completed a postdoctoral research
fellowship in social psychology at Case Western Reserve University.
She lives in San Diego with her husband and three daughters.

iv

v

Brief Contents

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology 1

Part One Social Thinking
Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World 25
Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgments 55
Chapter 4 Behavior and Attitudes 88

Part Two Social Influence
Chapter 5 Genes, Culture, and Gender 111
Chapter 6 Conformity and Obedience 141
Chapter 7 Persuasion 173
Chapter 8 Group Influence 201

Part Three Social Relations
Chapter 9 Prejudice 237
Chapter 10 Aggression 275
Chapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy 312
Chapter 12 Helping 352
Chapter 13 Conflict and Peacemaking 388

Part Four Applying Social Psychology
Chapter 14 Social Psychology in the Clinic 423
Chapter 15 Social Psychology in Court 453
Chapter 16 Social Psychology and the Sustainable Future 479

Epilogue 503

References R-1

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index/Glossary SI-1

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McGraw-Hill Education Psychology
APA Documentation Style Guide

Research Methods: How Do We Do Social
Psychology? 13
Forming and Testing Hypotheses 14
Sampling and Question Wording 14
Correlational Research: Detecting Natural

Associations 17
Experimental Research: Searching for Cause

and Effect 19
Generalizing from Laboratory to Life 22

Postscript: Why We Wrote This Book 24

Part One: Social Thinking

Chapter 2
The Self in a Social World 25

Spotlights and Illusions: What Do They
Teach Us About Ourselves? 26
Research Close-Up: On Being Nervous About Looking

Nervous 27

Self-Concept: Who Am I? 28
At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self 29
Self and Culture 30
Self-Knowledge 34
The Inside Story: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama

on Cultural Psychology 35

What Is the Nature and Motivating Power of
Self-Esteem? 39
Self-Esteem Motivation 39
The Trade-Off of Low vs. High Self-Esteem 41
Self-Efficacy 43

What Is Self-Serving Bias? 44
Explaining Positive and Negative Events 44
Can We All Be Better Than Average? 45
Focus On: Self-Serving Bias—How Do I Love Me? Let

Me Count the Ways 46
Unrealistic Optimism 47
False Consensus and Uniqueness 48
Explaining Self-Serving Bias 49

How Do People Manage Their
Self-Presentation? 50
Self-Handicapping 50
Impression Management 51

What Does It Mean to Have “Self-Control”? 53

Postscript: Twin Truths—The Perils of Pride, the
Powers of Positive Thinking 54

Preface xv

Chapter 1
Introducing Social Psychology 1

What Is Social Psychology? 2

What Are Social Psychology’s Big Ideas? 3
We Construct Our Social Reality 3
Our Social Intuitions Are Often Powerful but Sometimes

Perilous 4
Social Influences Shape Our Behavior 5
Personal Attitudes and Dispositions

Also Shape Behavior 6
Social Behavior Is Biologically Rooted 6
Social Psychology’s Principles Are Applicable

in Everyday Life 7

How Do Human Values Influence Social
Psychology? 7
Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology 7
Not-So-Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology 8

I Knew It All Along: Is Social Psychology Simply
Common Sense? 10
Focus On: I Knew It All Along 13

Table of Contents

vi

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Part Two: Social Influence

Chapter 5
Genes, Culture, and Gender 111

How Are We Influenced by Biology? 112
Genes, Evolution, and Behavior 113
Biology and Gender  114
Gender and Hormones 116
Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology 117
Focus On: Evolutionary Science and Religion 118

How Are We Influenced by Culture? 119
Culture and Behavior 119
Focus On: The Cultural Animal 120
Research Close-Up: Passing Encounters,

East and West 123
Peer-Transmitted Culture 124
Culture and Gender 125
Gender Roles Vary with Culture 127
Gender Roles Vary over Time 128

How Are Females and Males Alike
and Different? 129
Independence versus Connectedness 130
Social Dominance 133
Aggression 134
Sexuality 135

What Can We Conclude About Genes,
Culture, and Gender? 137
The Inside Story: Alice Eagly on Gender

Similarities and Differences 139

Postscript: Should We View Ourselves as
Products of Our Biology or Our Culture? 140

Chapter 6
Conformity and Obedience 141

What Is Conformity? 142

What Are the Classic Conformity
and Obedience Studies? 143
Sherif’s Studies of Norm Formation 143
Research Close-Up: Contagious Yawning  145
Asch’s Studies of Group Pressure 147
Milgram’s Obedience Studies 149
The Inside Story: Stanley Milgram on Obedience 150
The Ethics of Milgram’s Studies 152
What Breeds Obedience? 152

Chapter 3
Social Beliefs and Judgments 55

How Do We Judge Our Social Worlds, Consciously
and Unconsciously? 56
Priming 56
Intuitive Judgments 57
Overconfidence 59
Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts 61
Counterfactual Thinking 64
Illusory Thinking 65
Moods and Judgments 67
The Inside Story: Joseph P. Forgas: Can

Bad Weather Improve Your Memory? 68

How Do We Perceive Our Social Worlds? 69
Perceiving and Interpreting Events 69
Belief Perseverance 70
Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our Worlds 71

How Do We Explain Our Social Worlds? 73
Attributing Causality: To the Person or the Situation 73
The Fundamental Attribution Error 75

How Do Our Social Beliefs Matter? 80
Teacher Expectations and Student Performance 80
Focus On: The Self-Fulfilling Psychology

of the Stock Market 81
Getting from Others What We Expect 82

What Can We Conclude About Social
Beliefs and Judgments? 84

Postscript: Reflecting on Illusory Thinking 86

Chapter 4
Behavior and Attitudes 88

How Well Do Our Attitudes Predict
Our Behavior? 89
When Attitudes Predict Behavior 90

When Does Our Behavior Affect Our
Attitudes? 94
Role Playing 95
Saying Becomes Believing 96
Evil and Moral Acts 96
Social Movements 98

Why Does Our Behavior Affect Our
Attitudes? 99
Self-Presentation: Impression Management 99
Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance 100
The Inside Story: Leon Festinger

on Dissonance Reduction 104
Self-Perception 104
Comparing the Theories 108

Postscript: Changing Ourselves
Through Action 110

vii

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Many Hands Make Light Work 208
Social Loafing in Everyday Life 209

Deindividuation: When Do People Lose
Their Sense of Self in Groups? 211
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone 212
Diminished Self-Awareness 214

Group Polarization: Do Groups Intensify
Our Opinions? 215
The Case of the “Risky Shift” 216
Do Groups Intensify Opinions? 217
Focus On: Group Polarization 221
Explaining Group Polarization 221

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions? 224
The Inside Story: Irving Janis on Groupthink 225
Symptoms of Groupthink 225
Critiquing Groupthink 227
Preventing Groupthink 228
Group Problem Solving 228
The Inside Story: Behind a Nobel Prize: Two Minds Are

Better Than One 230

The Influence of the Minority: How Do Individuals
Influence the Group? 231
Consistency 232
Self-Confidence 233
Defections from the Majority 233
Is Leadership Minority Influence? 233
Focus On: Transformational Community

Leadership 234

Postscript: Are Groups Bad for Us? 236

Part Three: Social Relations
Chapter 9
Prejudice  237

What Is the Nature and Power of Prejudice? 238
Defining Prejudice 238

Focus On: Personalizing The Victims 153
Reflections on the Classic Studies 155

What Predicts Conformity? 159
Group Size 159
Unanimity 160
Cohesion 161
Status 162
Public Response 162
Prior Commitment 162

Why Conform? 164

Who Conforms? 166
Personality 166
Culture 167
Social Roles 168

Do We Ever Want to Be Different? 169
Reactance 169
Asserting Uniqueness 170

Postscript: On Being an Individual Within a
Community 172

Chapter 7
Persuasion 173

What Paths Lead to Persuasion? 175
The Central Route 175
The Peripheral Route 176
Different Paths for Different Purposes 176

What Are the Elements of Persuasion? 177
Who Says? The Communicator 177
Research Close-Up: Experimenting with a Virtual

Social Reality 181
What Is Said? The Message Content 182
How Is It Said? The Channel of Communication 188
To Whom Is It Said? The Audience 192
Focus On: Cults and Persuasion 194

How Can Persuasion Be Resisted? 196
Attitude Inoculation 197
Implications of Attitude Inoculation 200

Postscript: Being Open but Not Naïve 200

Chapter 8
Group Influence 201

What Is a Group? 201

Social Facilitation: How Are We Affected
by the Presence of Others? 202
The Mere Presence of Others 202
Crowding: The Presence of Many Others 205
Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others? 205

Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert Less
Effort in a Group? 207

viii Table of Contents

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Chapter 10
Aggression 275

What Is Aggression? 277

What Are Some Theories of Aggression? 278
Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon 278
Aggression as a Response to Frustration 282
Aggression as Learned Social Behavior 285

What Are Some Influences on Aggression? 287
Aversive Incidents 287
Arousal 289
Aggression Cues 290
Media Influences: Pornography

and Sexual Violence 291
Media Influences: Television, Movies,

and the Internet 293
Another Media Influence: Video Games 298
Effects of Video Games 299
The Inside Story: Craig Anderson on Video-Game

Violence 303
Group Influences 303
Research Close-Up: When Provoked, Are Groups More

Aggressive Than Individuals? 305

How Can Aggression Be Reduced? 306
Catharsis? 306
A Social Learning Approach 308
Culture Change and World Violence 309

Postscript: Reforming a Violent Culture 310

Prejudice: Implicit and Explicit 240
Racial Prejudice 240
Gender Prejudice 244
LGBT Prejudice 247

What Are the Social Sources of Prejudice? 248
Social Inequalities: Unequal Status and Prejudice 248
Socialization 249
Institutional Supports 252

What Are the Motivational Sources
of Prejudice? 253
Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theory 253
Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others 254
Motivation to Avoid Prejudice 258

What Are the Cognitive Sources of
Prejudice? 259
Categorization: Classifying People into Groups 259
Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out 260
Attribution: Is It a Just World? 264

What Are the Consequences of Prejudice? 267
Self-Perpetuating Prejudgments 267
Discrimination’s Impact: The Self-Fulfilling

Prophecy 268
Stereotype Threat 269
The Inside Story: Claude Steele on Stereotype

Threat 271
Do Stereotypes Bias Judgments of Individuals? 271

Postscript: Can We Reduce Prejudice? 273

Table of Contents ix

©Ariel Skelley/Blend Images LLC

How Can We Increase Helping? 380
Reduce Ambiguity, Increase Responsibility 380
Guilt and Concern for Self-Image 381
Socializing Altruism 382
Focus On: Behavior and Attitudes Among

Rescuers of Jews 385

Postscript: Taking Social Psychology into Life 387

Chapter 13
Conflict and Peacemaking 388

What Creates Conflict? 389
Social Dilemmas 389
Competition 395
Perceived Injustice 397
Misperception 397
Research Close-Up: Misperception

and War 400

How Can Peace Be Achieved? 401
Contact 401
Research Close-Up: Relationships That Might

Have Been 405
The Inside Story: Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson

On Cross-Racial Friendships 406
Cooperation 407
Focus On: Why Do We Care Who Wins? 408
Focus On: Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the

Integration of Baseball 413
Communication 415
Conciliation 419

Postscript: The Conflict Between Individual and
Communal Rights 421

Part Four: Applying Social
Psychology

Chapter 14
Social Psychology in the Clinic 423

What Influences the Accuracy of Clinical
Judgments? 424
Illusory Correlations 425
Hindsight and Overconfidence 426
Self-Confirming Diagnoses 427
Clinical Intuition versus Statistical Prediction 427
Focus On: A Physician’s View: The Social Psychology

of Medicine 429
Implications for Better Clinical Practice 430

What Cognitive Processes Accompany Behavior
Problems? 430
Depression 430
The Inside Story: Shelley Taylor on Positive

Illusions 433
Loneliness 434

Chapter 11
Attraction and Intimacy 312

How Important Is the Need to Belong? 314

What Leads to Friendship and Attraction? 316
Proximity 316
Focus On: Liking Things Associated with Oneself 319
Physical Attractiveness 321
The Inside Story: Ellen Berscheid

on Attractiveness 324
Similarity versus Complementarity 329
Liking Those Who Like Us 331
Focus On: Bad Is Stronger Than Good 332
Relationship Rewards 334

What Is Love? 335
Passionate Love 335
Companionate Love 338

What Enables Close Relationships? 340
Attachment 340
Equity 342
Self-Disclosure 343
Focus On: Does the Internet Create Intimacy or

Isolation? 346

How Do Relationships End? 347
Divorce 348
The Detachment Process 349

Postscript: Making Love 351

Chapter 12
Helping 352

Why Do We Help? 353
Social Exchange and Social Norms 353
The Inside Story: Dennis Krebs on Life Experience

and the Study of Altruism 355
Evolutionary Psychology 361
Comparing and Evaluating Theories of Helping 363
Genuine Altruism 363
Focus On: The Benefits—and the Costs—of

Empathy-Induced Altruism 365

When Will We Help? 367
Number of Bystanders 367
The Inside Story: John M. Darley on Bystander

Reactions 368
Helping When Someone Else Does 372
Time Pressures 373
Similarity 373
Research Close-Up: Ingroup Similarity

and Helping 374

Who Will Help? 376
Personality Traits and Status 376
Gender 377
Religious Faith 378

x Table of Contents

Table of Contents xi

Are Twelve Heads Better Than One? 474
Research Close-Up: Group Polarization in a Natural

Court Setting 475
Are Six Heads as Good as Twelve? 475
From Lab to Life: Simulated and Real Juries 476

Postscript: Thinking Smart with Psychological
Science 477

Chapter 16
Social Psychology and the Sustainable
Future 479

Psychology and Climate Change 483
Psychological Effects of Climate Change 483
Public Opinion About Climate Change 484

Enabling Sustainable Living 487
New Technologies 487
Reducing Consumption 487
The Inside Story: Janet Swim on Psychology’s Response

to Climate Change 489

The Social Psychology of Materialism
and Wealth 490
Increased Materialism 491
Wealth and Well-Being 492
Materialism Fails to Satisfy 494
Toward Sustainability and Survival 498
Research Close-Up: Measuring National

Well-Being 500

Postscript: How Does One Live
Responsibly in the Modern World? 501

Epilogue 503

References R-1

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index SI-1

Anxiety and Shyness 436
Health, Illness, and Death 437

What Are Some Social-Psychological Approaches
to Treatment? 441
Inducing Internal Change Through External Behavior 442
Breaking Vicious Cycles 442
Maintaining Change Through Internal Attributions for

Success 444
Using Therapy as Social Influence 445

How Do Social Relationships Support Health and
Well-Being? 446
Close Relationships and Health 446
Close Relationships and Happiness 449

Postscript: Enhancing Happiness 452

Chapter 15
Social Psychology in Court 453

How Reliable Is Eyewitness Testimony? 454
The Power of Persuasive Eyewitnesses 454
When Eyes Deceive 455
The Misinformation Effect 457
Retelling 459
Reducing Error 459
Research Close-Up: Feedback to Witnesses 459

What Other Factors Influence Juror
Judgments? 464
The Defendant’s Characteristics 464
The Judge’s Instructions 467
Additional Factors 469

What Influences the Individual Juror? 469
Juror Comprehension 470
Jury Selection 471
“Death-Qualified” Jurors 471

How Do Group Influences Affect Juries? 473
Minority Influence 473
Group Polarization 473
Leniency 474

McGraw-Hill Education Psychology
APA Documentation Style Guide

Guide to Culture

xii

Text coverage of culture focuses on the following topics:
Affluence and happiness: pp. 493–495
Aggression and culture: pp. 286–287
Anonymity and violence: pp. 213–214
Asserting uniqueness: pp. 209–211
Attachment styles: p. 341
Attitudes about race: pp. 98–99
Behavior and culture: pp. 119–125
Biology and culture: pp. 137–139
Close relationships and happiness: p. 549
Cognition and culture: pp. 32–33
Collectivism: pp. 30–31, 172, 421–422

Interdependent self: p. 33
Conformity: pp. 142, 144, 148

Nonconformity: pp. 170–172
Counterfactual thinking: pp. 64–65
“Cultural racism”: p. 242
Culture of peace: p. 501
Definition of culture: pp. 8–9, 119–120
Depression: p. 434
Diversity: pp. 120–122
Divorce: p. 348
Evolutionary psychology: pp. 113–114
Facebook profile pictures and cultural

differences: p. 32
Facebook posts expressing positive emotion in India

and the United States: p. 126
Group polarization in terrorist organizations:

pp. 220–221
Fundamental attribution error and cultural

differences: pp. 78–79
Gender and culture: pp. 125–127
Generalizing from laboratory to life: pp. 22–23
Group and superordinate identities: pp. 414–415
Guilt: p. 356
Immigration, children’s preference for new culture’s

language and norms: p. 124

Implicit attitudes: pp. 90–91
Independence versus connectedness: pp. 130–133
Independent self: p. 30
Individualism: pp. 30, 170–172, 421–422

Growing individualism within cultures:
pp. 31–32, 422

Influence of human nature and cultural diversity:
pp. 112–119

Justice, perceptions of: p. 397
Loneliness: p. 434
Love, variations in: pp. 337–338
Norms: pp. 121–124
Obedience: pp. 151, 156–157, 167–168
Observational learning of aggression: pp. 364–365
Perceived injustice: p. 490
Physical anonymity: p. 279
Physical attractiveness: pp. 326–327
Reciprocity norm: p. 447
Religion and racial prejudice: pp. 250–251
Self and culture: pp. 30–34
Self-esteem: pp. 33–34
Self-presentation: pp. 51–52
Self-serving bias: pp. 44–50
Similarity: p. 125
Social comparison and income inequality:

pp. 496–498
Social influence: pp. 2, 5
Social loafing: pp. 210–211
Social-responsibility norm: p. 359
Socialization: p. 249
Stereotypes: pp. 239–248
“System justification”: p. 343
Tragedy of the Commons: pp. 391–392
Values in social psychology: pp. 7–10, 477–478
Violence and culture: pp. 309–311

Feature coverage of culture can be found in the following boxes:
Focus On: I Knew It All Along: p. 13
Focus On: Self-Serving Bias: How Do I Love Me? Let

Me Count the Ways: p. 46
Focus On: The Cultural Animal: p. 120
The Inside Story: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama

on Cultural Psychology: p. 35

Research Close-Up: Passing Encounters,
East and West: p. 123

Research Close-Up: Measuring National Well-Being:
pp. 500–501

xiii

Guide to Technology
and Social Media
Text coverage of technology and social media focuses on the
following topics:
Aggression and “rant” websites: p. 307
Altruism in online gaming: p. 379
Anonymity on the Internet: p. 225
Belief perseverance on social media: pp. 70–71
Bystander effect on Facebook: p. 367
Confirmation bias on social media: p. 61
Conformity in online gaming: p. 164
Cultural differences in Facebook posts: p. 126
Cyberbullying: pp. 266, 276
False consensus effect on Facebook: p. 48
Gender differences in Facebook posts:

pp. 129–130, 132
Gender and STEM subjects: p. 252
Group polarization on the Internet: pp. 219–220
Interactions, in person versus social media:

pp. 435, 450
Internet, television, movies and aggression:

pp. 293–298
Jury presentations: p. 477
Loneliness on social media: p. 435
Narcissism on social media: p. 43
Online dating:

Increased disclosure and liking: p. 346
Personal advertisements on the Internet, asset

matching: p. 323

Similarity: p. 330
Speed dating: p. 329

Online rumors forum: p. 126
Ostracism on social media, effects of: p. 315
Persuasion:

Credibility of fake news depends on who
shares it: p. 179

Media compared: p. 191
Media influence: pp. 189–191
Online games as children’s advertising: p. 199
Political advertising: p. 189
Primacy effect and TripAdvisor reviews: p. 186
“Viral marketing”: p. 189

Pornography and sexual violence: pp. 291–293
Prejudice: pp. 310–311
Prosocial media and gaming: p. 384
Selective exposure: pp. 100–101
Self-presentation on Facebook: p. 52
Social comparison on social media: pp. 29–30,

223, 496
Suggestibility on social media: p. 146
Use of social media by young people: p. 313
Technology, affluence, and happiness: p. 493
Technology and sustainability: p. 487
Video games and aggression: pp. 298–302

Feature coverage of technology and social media can be found
in the following boxes:
Research Close-Up: Experimenting with a Virtual Social

Reality: p. 181
The Inside Story: Craig Anderson on Video Game

Violence: p. 303

Focus On: Does the Internet Create Intimacy or
Isolation?: pp. 346–347

xiv

A Letter from the Authors

We humans have a very long history, but social psychology has a very short one—barely

more than a century. Considering …

SOCIAL
PSYCHOLOGY

David G. Myers
Jean M. Twenge

13e

SOCIAL
PSYCHOLOGY

David G. Myers
Hope College

Jean M. Twenge
San Diego State University

13e

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, THIRTEENTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill
Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2016, 2013,
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including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast
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United States.

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MHID 1-260-39711-4 (bound edition)

ISBN 978-1-259-91104-0 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-259-91104-7 (loose-leaf edition)

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Myers, David G., author. | Twenge, Jean M., author.
Title: Social psychology / David G. Myers, Hope College, Jean M. Twenge, San
 Diego State University.
Description: Thirteenth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, [2018] |
 Revised edition of the authors’ Social psychology, [2016]
Identifiers: LCCN 2018018043| ISBN 9781260397116 (hard cover : alk. paper) |
 ISBN 1260397114 (hard cover : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Social psychology.
Classification: LCC HM1033 .M944 2018 | DDC 302—dc23 LC record available at
 https://lccn.loc.gov/2018018043

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iii

DGM

For Dennis and Betty
kindred friends, servant leaders

JMT

For my daughters: Kate, Elizabeth, and Julia

iv Part One Social Thinking

Photo by Hope College Public Relations.
For more information, or to contact David Myers, visit
davidmyers.org. ©David Myers

Jean M. Twenge by Sandy Huffaker, Jr.
For more information, or to contact Jean Twenge, visit
www.jeantwenge.com ©Sandy Huffaker, Jr.

About the Authors

Since receiving his University of Iowa Ph.D., David G. Myers has professed psychology at Michigan’s Hope College. Hope College students have invited him to be their
commencement speaker and voted him “outstanding professor.”

With support from National Science Foundation grants,
Myers’ research has appeared in some three dozen scientific peri-
odicals, including Science, the American Scientist, Psychological
Science, and the American Psychologist.

He has also communicated psychological science through
articles in four dozen magazines, from Today’s Education to
Scientific American, and through his seventeen books, including
The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

Myers’ research and writings have been recognized by the Gordon
Allport Prize, by an “honored scientist” award from the Federa-
tion of Associations in the Brain and Behavioral Sciences, and
by the Award for Distinguished Service on Behalf of Personality-
Social Psychology.

He has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission,
helped found a center for families in poverty, and spoken to hun-
dreds of college and community groups. In recognition of his
efforts to transform the way America provides assistive listening
for people with hearing loss (see hearingloop.org), he has received
awards from the American Academy of Audiology, the Hearing
Loss Association of America, and the hearing industry.

David and Carol Myers have three children and one grandchild.

As Professor of Psychology at San Diego State University, Jean
M. Twenge has authored more than 140 scientific publications on
generational differences, cultural change, social rejection, digital
media use, gender roles, self-esteem, and narcissism. Her research
has been covered in Time, Newsweek, The New York Times, USA
Today, U.S. News and World Report, and The Washington Post, and
she has been featured on Today, Good Morning America, CBS
This Morning, Fox and Friends, NBC Nightly News, Dateline
NBC, and National Public Radio.

Dr. Twenge has drawn on her research in her books for a
broader audience, iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are
Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—And Com-
pletely Unprepared for Adulthood (2017) and Generation Me: Why
Today’s Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—
And More Miserable Than Ever Before (2nd ed., 2014). An article
by Dr. Twenge in The Atlantic was nominated for a National Maga-
zine Award. She frequently gives talks and seminars on genera-
tional differences to audiences such as college faculty and staff,
parent-teacher groups, military personnel, camp directors, and
corporate executives.

Jean Twenge grew up in Minnesota and Texas. She holds a
B.A. and M.A. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from
the University of Michigan. She completed a postdoctoral research
fellowship in social psychology at Case Western Reserve University.
She lives in San Diego with her husband and three daughters.

iv

v

Brief Contents

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology 1

Part One Social Thinking
Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World 25
Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgments 55
Chapter 4 Behavior and Attitudes 88

Part Two Social Influence
Chapter 5 Genes, Culture, and Gender 111
Chapter 6 Conformity and Obedience 141
Chapter 7 Persuasion 173
Chapter 8 Group Influence 201

Part Three Social Relations
Chapter 9 Prejudice 237
Chapter 10 Aggression 275
Chapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy 312
Chapter 12 Helping 352
Chapter 13 Conflict and Peacemaking 388

Part Four Applying Social Psychology
Chapter 14 Social Psychology in the Clinic 423
Chapter 15 Social Psychology in Court 453
Chapter 16 Social Psychology and the Sustainable Future 479

Epilogue 503

References R-1

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index/Glossary SI-1

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McGraw-Hill Education Psychology
APA Documentation Style Guide

Research Methods: How Do We Do Social
Psychology? 13
Forming and Testing Hypotheses 14
Sampling and Question Wording 14
Correlational Research: Detecting Natural

Associations 17
Experimental Research: Searching for Cause

and Effect 19
Generalizing from Laboratory to Life 22

Postscript: Why We Wrote This Book 24

Part One: Social Thinking

Chapter 2
The Self in a Social World 25

Spotlights and Illusions: What Do They
Teach Us About Ourselves? 26
Research Close-Up: On Being Nervous About Looking

Nervous 27

Self-Concept: Who Am I? 28
At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self 29
Self and Culture 30
Self-Knowledge 34
The Inside Story: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama

on Cultural Psychology 35

What Is the Nature and Motivating Power of
Self-Esteem? 39
Self-Esteem Motivation 39
The Trade-Off of Low vs. High Self-Esteem 41
Self-Efficacy 43

What Is Self-Serving Bias? 44
Explaining Positive and Negative Events 44
Can We All Be Better Than Average? 45
Focus On: Self-Serving Bias—How Do I Love Me? Let

Me Count the Ways 46
Unrealistic Optimism 47
False Consensus and Uniqueness 48
Explaining Self-Serving Bias 49

How Do People Manage Their
Self-Presentation? 50
Self-Handicapping 50
Impression Management 51

What Does It Mean to Have “Self-Control”? 53

Postscript: Twin Truths—The Perils of Pride, the
Powers of Positive Thinking 54

Preface xv

Chapter 1
Introducing Social Psychology 1

What Is Social Psychology? 2

What Are Social Psychology’s Big Ideas? 3
We Construct Our Social Reality 3
Our Social Intuitions Are Often Powerful but Sometimes

Perilous 4
Social Influences Shape Our Behavior 5
Personal Attitudes and Dispositions

Also Shape Behavior 6
Social Behavior Is Biologically Rooted 6
Social Psychology’s Principles Are Applicable

in Everyday Life 7

How Do Human Values Influence Social
Psychology? 7
Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology 7
Not-So-Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology 8

I Knew It All Along: Is Social Psychology Simply
Common Sense? 10
Focus On: I Knew It All Along 13

Table of Contents

vi

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Part Two: Social Influence

Chapter 5
Genes, Culture, and Gender 111

How Are We Influenced by Biology? 112
Genes, Evolution, and Behavior 113
Biology and Gender  114
Gender and Hormones 116
Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology 117
Focus On: Evolutionary Science and Religion 118

How Are We Influenced by Culture? 119
Culture and Behavior 119
Focus On: The Cultural Animal 120
Research Close-Up: Passing Encounters,

East and West 123
Peer-Transmitted Culture 124
Culture and Gender 125
Gender Roles Vary with Culture 127
Gender Roles Vary over Time 128

How Are Females and Males Alike
and Different? 129
Independence versus Connectedness 130
Social Dominance 133
Aggression 134
Sexuality 135

What Can We Conclude About Genes,
Culture, and Gender? 137
The Inside Story: Alice Eagly on Gender

Similarities and Differences 139

Postscript: Should We View Ourselves as
Products of Our Biology or Our Culture? 140

Chapter 6
Conformity and Obedience 141

What Is Conformity? 142

What Are the Classic Conformity
and Obedience Studies? 143
Sherif’s Studies of Norm Formation 143
Research Close-Up: Contagious Yawning  145
Asch’s Studies of Group Pressure 147
Milgram’s Obedience Studies 149
The Inside Story: Stanley Milgram on Obedience 150
The Ethics of Milgram’s Studies 152
What Breeds Obedience? 152

Chapter 3
Social Beliefs and Judgments 55

How Do We Judge Our Social Worlds, Consciously
and Unconsciously? 56
Priming 56
Intuitive Judgments 57
Overconfidence 59
Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts 61
Counterfactual Thinking 64
Illusory Thinking 65
Moods and Judgments 67
The Inside Story: Joseph P. Forgas: Can

Bad Weather Improve Your Memory? 68

How Do We Perceive Our Social Worlds? 69
Perceiving and Interpreting Events 69
Belief Perseverance 70
Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our Worlds 71

How Do We Explain Our Social Worlds? 73
Attributing Causality: To the Person or the Situation 73
The Fundamental Attribution Error 75

How Do Our Social Beliefs Matter? 80
Teacher Expectations and Student Performance 80
Focus On: The Self-Fulfilling Psychology

of the Stock Market 81
Getting from Others What We Expect 82

What Can We Conclude About Social
Beliefs and Judgments? 84

Postscript: Reflecting on Illusory Thinking 86

Chapter 4
Behavior and Attitudes 88

How Well Do Our Attitudes Predict
Our Behavior? 89
When Attitudes Predict Behavior 90

When Does Our Behavior Affect Our
Attitudes? 94
Role Playing 95
Saying Becomes Believing 96
Evil and Moral Acts 96
Social Movements 98

Why Does Our Behavior Affect Our
Attitudes? 99
Self-Presentation: Impression Management 99
Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance 100
The Inside Story: Leon Festinger

on Dissonance Reduction 104
Self-Perception 104
Comparing the Theories 108

Postscript: Changing Ourselves
Through Action 110

vii

©tetmc/iStock/Getty Images

Many Hands Make Light Work 208
Social Loafing in Everyday Life 209

Deindividuation: When Do People Lose
Their Sense of Self in Groups? 211
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone 212
Diminished Self-Awareness 214

Group Polarization: Do Groups Intensify
Our Opinions? 215
The Case of the “Risky Shift” 216
Do Groups Intensify Opinions? 217
Focus On: Group Polarization 221
Explaining Group Polarization 221

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions? 224
The Inside Story: Irving Janis on Groupthink 225
Symptoms of Groupthink 225
Critiquing Groupthink 227
Preventing Groupthink 228
Group Problem Solving 228
The Inside Story: Behind a Nobel Prize: Two Minds Are

Better Than One 230

The Influence of the Minority: How Do Individuals
Influence the Group? 231
Consistency 232
Self-Confidence 233
Defections from the Majority 233
Is Leadership Minority Influence? 233
Focus On: Transformational Community

Leadership 234

Postscript: Are Groups Bad for Us? 236

Part Three: Social Relations
Chapter 9
Prejudice  237

What Is the Nature and Power of Prejudice? 238
Defining Prejudice 238

Focus On: Personalizing The Victims 153
Reflections on the Classic Studies 155

What Predicts Conformity? 159
Group Size 159
Unanimity 160
Cohesion 161
Status 162
Public Response 162
Prior Commitment 162

Why Conform? 164

Who Conforms? 166
Personality 166
Culture 167
Social Roles 168

Do We Ever Want to Be Different? 169
Reactance 169
Asserting Uniqueness 170

Postscript: On Being an Individual Within a
Community 172

Chapter 7
Persuasion 173

What Paths Lead to Persuasion? 175
The Central Route 175
The Peripheral Route 176
Different Paths for Different Purposes 176

What Are the Elements of Persuasion? 177
Who Says? The Communicator 177
Research Close-Up: Experimenting with a Virtual

Social Reality 181
What Is Said? The Message Content 182
How Is It Said? The Channel of Communication 188
To Whom Is It Said? The Audience 192
Focus On: Cults and Persuasion 194

How Can Persuasion Be Resisted? 196
Attitude Inoculation 197
Implications of Attitude Inoculation 200

Postscript: Being Open but Not Naïve 200

Chapter 8
Group Influence 201

What Is a Group? 201

Social Facilitation: How Are We Affected
by the Presence of Others? 202
The Mere Presence of Others 202
Crowding: The Presence of Many Others 205
Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others? 205

Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert Less
Effort in a Group? 207

viii Table of Contents

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Chapter 10
Aggression 275

What Is Aggression? 277

What Are Some Theories of Aggression? 278
Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon 278
Aggression as a Response to Frustration 282
Aggression as Learned Social Behavior 285

What Are Some Influences on Aggression? 287
Aversive Incidents 287
Arousal 289
Aggression Cues 290
Media Influences: Pornography

and Sexual Violence 291
Media Influences: Television, Movies,

and the Internet 293
Another Media Influence: Video Games 298
Effects of Video Games 299
The Inside Story: Craig Anderson on Video-Game

Violence 303
Group Influences 303
Research Close-Up: When Provoked, Are Groups More

Aggressive Than Individuals? 305

How Can Aggression Be Reduced? 306
Catharsis? 306
A Social Learning Approach 308
Culture Change and World Violence 309

Postscript: Reforming a Violent Culture 310

Prejudice: Implicit and Explicit 240
Racial Prejudice 240
Gender Prejudice 244
LGBT Prejudice 247

What Are the Social Sources of Prejudice? 248
Social Inequalities: Unequal Status and Prejudice 248
Socialization 249
Institutional Supports 252

What Are the Motivational Sources
of Prejudice? 253
Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theory 253
Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others 254
Motivation to Avoid Prejudice 258

What Are the Cognitive Sources of
Prejudice? 259
Categorization: Classifying People into Groups 259
Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out 260
Attribution: Is It a Just World? 264

What Are the Consequences of Prejudice? 267
Self-Perpetuating Prejudgments 267
Discrimination’s Impact: The Self-Fulfilling

Prophecy 268
Stereotype Threat 269
The Inside Story: Claude Steele on Stereotype

Threat 271
Do Stereotypes Bias Judgments of Individuals? 271

Postscript: Can We Reduce Prejudice? 273

Table of Contents ix

©Ariel Skelley/Blend Images LLC

How Can We Increase Helping? 380
Reduce Ambiguity, Increase Responsibility 380
Guilt and Concern for Self-Image 381
Socializing Altruism 382
Focus On: Behavior and Attitudes Among

Rescuers of Jews 385

Postscript: Taking Social Psychology into Life 387

Chapter 13
Conflict and Peacemaking 388

What Creates Conflict? 389
Social Dilemmas 389
Competition 395
Perceived Injustice 397
Misperception 397
Research Close-Up: Misperception

and War 400

How Can Peace Be Achieved? 401
Contact 401
Research Close-Up: Relationships That Might

Have Been 405
The Inside Story: Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson

On Cross-Racial Friendships 406
Cooperation 407
Focus On: Why Do We Care Who Wins? 408
Focus On: Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the

Integration of Baseball 413
Communication 415
Conciliation 419

Postscript: The Conflict Between Individual and
Communal Rights 421

Part Four: Applying Social
Psychology

Chapter 14
Social Psychology in the Clinic 423

What Influences the Accuracy of Clinical
Judgments? 424
Illusory Correlations 425
Hindsight and Overconfidence 426
Self-Confirming Diagnoses 427
Clinical Intuition versus Statistical Prediction 427
Focus On: A Physician’s View: The Social Psychology

of Medicine 429
Implications for Better Clinical Practice 430

What Cognitive Processes Accompany Behavior
Problems? 430
Depression 430
The Inside Story: Shelley Taylor on Positive

Illusions 433
Loneliness 434

Chapter 11
Attraction and Intimacy 312

How Important Is the Need to Belong? 314

What Leads to Friendship and Attraction? 316
Proximity 316
Focus On: Liking Things Associated with Oneself 319
Physical Attractiveness 321
The Inside Story: Ellen Berscheid

on Attractiveness 324
Similarity versus Complementarity 329
Liking Those Who Like Us 331
Focus On: Bad Is Stronger Than Good 332
Relationship Rewards 334

What Is Love? 335
Passionate Love 335
Companionate Love 338

What Enables Close Relationships? 340
Attachment 340
Equity 342
Self-Disclosure 343
Focus On: Does the Internet Create Intimacy or

Isolation? 346

How Do Relationships End? 347
Divorce 348
The Detachment Process 349

Postscript: Making Love 351

Chapter 12
Helping 352

Why Do We Help? 353
Social Exchange and Social Norms 353
The Inside Story: Dennis Krebs on Life Experience

and the Study of Altruism 355
Evolutionary Psychology 361
Comparing and Evaluating Theories of Helping 363
Genuine Altruism 363
Focus On: The Benefits—and the Costs—of

Empathy-Induced Altruism 365

When Will We Help? 367
Number of Bystanders 367
The Inside Story: John M. Darley on Bystander

Reactions 368
Helping When Someone Else Does 372
Time Pressures 373
Similarity 373
Research Close-Up: Ingroup Similarity

and Helping 374

Who Will Help? 376
Personality Traits and Status 376
Gender 377
Religious Faith 378

x Table of Contents

Table of Contents xi

Are Twelve Heads Better Than One? 474
Research Close-Up: Group Polarization in a Natural

Court Setting 475
Are Six Heads as Good as Twelve? 475
From Lab to Life: Simulated and Real Juries 476

Postscript: Thinking Smart with Psychological
Science 477

Chapter 16
Social Psychology and the Sustainable
Future 479

Psychology and Climate Change 483
Psychological Effects of Climate Change 483
Public Opinion About Climate Change 484

Enabling Sustainable Living 487
New Technologies 487
Reducing Consumption 487
The Inside Story: Janet Swim on Psychology’s Response

to Climate Change 489

The Social Psychology of Materialism
and Wealth 490
Increased Materialism 491
Wealth and Well-Being 492
Materialism Fails to Satisfy 494
Toward Sustainability and Survival 498
Research Close-Up: Measuring National

Well-Being 500

Postscript: How Does One Live
Responsibly in the Modern World? 501

Epilogue 503

References R-1

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index SI-1

Anxiety and Shyness 436
Health, Illness, and Death 437

What Are Some Social-Psychological Approaches
to Treatment? 441
Inducing Internal Change Through External Behavior 442
Breaking Vicious Cycles 442
Maintaining Change Through Internal Attributions for

Success 444
Using Therapy as Social Influence 445

How Do Social Relationships Support Health and
Well-Being? 446
Close Relationships and Health 446
Close Relationships and Happiness 449

Postscript: Enhancing Happiness 452

Chapter 15
Social Psychology in Court 453

How Reliable Is Eyewitness Testimony? 454
The Power of Persuasive Eyewitnesses 454
When Eyes Deceive 455
The Misinformation Effect 457
Retelling 459
Reducing Error 459
Research Close-Up: Feedback to Witnesses 459

What Other Factors Influence Juror
Judgments? 464
The Defendant’s Characteristics 464
The Judge’s Instructions 467
Additional Factors 469

What Influences the Individual Juror? 469
Juror Comprehension 470
Jury Selection 471
“Death-Qualified” Jurors 471

How Do Group Influences Affect Juries? 473
Minority Influence 473
Group Polarization 473
Leniency 474

McGraw-Hill Education Psychology
APA Documentation Style Guide

Guide to Culture

xii

Text coverage of culture focuses on the following topics:
Affluence and happiness: pp. 493–495
Aggression and culture: pp. 286–287
Anonymity and violence: pp. 213–214
Asserting uniqueness: pp. 209–211
Attachment styles: p. 341
Attitudes about race: pp. 98–99
Behavior and culture: pp. 119–125
Biology and culture: pp. 137–139
Close relationships and happiness: p. 549
Cognition and culture: pp. 32–33
Collectivism: pp. 30–31, 172, 421–422

Interdependent self: p. 33
Conformity: pp. 142, 144, 148

Nonconformity: pp. 170–172
Counterfactual thinking: pp. 64–65
“Cultural racism”: p. 242
Culture of peace: p. 501
Definition of culture: pp. 8–9, 119–120
Depression: p. 434
Diversity: pp. 120–122
Divorce: p. 348
Evolutionary psychology: pp. 113–114
Facebook profile pictures and cultural

differences: p. 32
Facebook posts expressing positive emotion in India

and the United States: p. 126
Group polarization in terrorist organizations:

pp. 220–221
Fundamental attribution error and cultural

differences: pp. 78–79
Gender and culture: pp. 125–127
Generalizing from laboratory to life: pp. 22–23
Group and superordinate identities: pp. 414–415
Guilt: p. 356
Immigration, children’s preference for new culture’s

language and norms: p. 124

Implicit attitudes: pp. 90–91
Independence versus connectedness: pp. 130–133
Independent self: p. 30
Individualism: pp. 30, 170–172, 421–422

Growing individualism within cultures:
pp. 31–32, 422

Influence of human nature and cultural diversity:
pp. 112–119

Justice, perceptions of: p. 397
Loneliness: p. 434
Love, variations in: pp. 337–338
Norms: pp. 121–124
Obedience: pp. 151, 156–157, 167–168
Observational learning of aggression: pp. 364–365
Perceived injustice: p. 490
Physical anonymity: p. 279
Physical attractiveness: pp. 326–327
Reciprocity norm: p. 447
Religion and racial prejudice: pp. 250–251
Self and culture: pp. 30–34
Self-esteem: pp. 33–34
Self-presentation: pp. 51–52
Self-serving bias: pp. 44–50
Similarity: p. 125
Social comparison and income inequality:

pp. 496–498
Social influence: pp. 2, 5
Social loafing: pp. 210–211
Social-responsibility norm: p. 359
Socialization: p. 249
Stereotypes: pp. 239–248
“System justification”: p. 343
Tragedy of the Commons: pp. 391–392
Values in social psychology: pp. 7–10, 477–478
Violence and culture: pp. 309–311

Feature coverage of culture can be found in the following boxes:
Focus On: I Knew It All Along: p. 13
Focus On: Self-Serving Bias: How Do I Love Me? Let

Me Count the Ways: p. 46
Focus On: The Cultural Animal: p. 120
The Inside Story: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama

on Cultural Psychology: p. 35

Research Close-Up: Passing Encounters,
East and West: p. 123

Research Close-Up: Measuring National Well-Being:
pp. 500–501

xiii

Guide to Technology
and Social Media
Text coverage of technology and social media focuses on the
following topics:
Aggression and “rant” websites: p. 307
Altruism in online gaming: p. 379
Anonymity on the Internet: p. 225
Belief perseverance on social media: pp. 70–71
Bystander effect on Facebook: p. 367
Confirmation bias on social media: p. 61
Conformity in online gaming: p. 164
Cultural differences in Facebook posts: p. 126
Cyberbullying: pp. 266, 276
False consensus effect on Facebook: p. 48
Gender differences in Facebook posts:

pp. 129–130, 132
Gender and STEM subjects: p. 252
Group polarization on the Internet: pp. 219–220
Interactions, in person versus social media:

pp. 435, 450
Internet, television, movies and aggression:

pp. 293–298
Jury presentations: p. 477
Loneliness on social media: p. 435
Narcissism on social media: p. 43
Online dating:

Increased disclosure and liking: p. 346
Personal advertisements on the Internet, asset

matching: p. 323

Similarity: p. 330
Speed dating: p. 329

Online rumors forum: p. 126
Ostracism on social media, effects of: p. 315
Persuasion:

Credibility of fake news depends on who
shares it: p. 179

Media compared: p. 191
Media influence: pp. 189–191
Online games as children’s advertising: p. 199
Political advertising: p. 189
Primacy effect and TripAdvisor reviews: p. 186
“Viral marketing”: p. 189

Pornography and sexual violence: pp. 291–293
Prejudice: pp. 310–311
Prosocial media and gaming: p. 384
Selective exposure: pp. 100–101
Self-presentation on Facebook: p. 52
Social comparison on social media: pp. 29–30,

223, 496
Suggestibility on social media: p. 146
Use of social media by young people: p. 313
Technology, affluence, and happiness: p. 493
Technology and sustainability: p. 487
Video games and aggression: pp. 298–302

Feature coverage of technology and social media can be found
in the following boxes:
Research Close-Up: Experimenting with a Virtual Social

Reality: p. 181
The Inside Story: Craig Anderson on Video Game

Violence: p. 303

Focus On: Does the Internet Create Intimacy or
Isolation?: pp. 346–347

xiv

A Letter from the Authors

We humans have a very long history, but social psychology has a very short one—barely

more than a century. Considering …