Question 1)  Exchange papers with your partners. Read through your partner’s paper and offer comments to make the manuscripts better.

Please upload the papers you worked on here. Your upload must show your detailed comments on the paper.




Background of the Study 4
Problem Statement and Significance of the Study 4
Significance of the study 5
Theoretical Foundations 5
Researcher’s Positionality 9
Purpose of the Study 10
Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses 10
Significance of study 11
Definition of the Terms 12
Cyber Security 12
Threats 12
Business Data 13
Attacks 13
Firewall 13
Authentication 13
Data Encryption 13
Hacker 13
Incident response plan 14
Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study 14
Chapter 3: Methodology 15
Introduction 15
Statement of the Problem 16
Research Question(s) or Hypotheses 17
Research Methodology 17
Research Design 18
Study Population and Sample Selection 21
Data Collection Methods 23
Data Collection Procedures 25
Data Analysis and Procedures 26
Validity and Reliability (Quantitative) or Trustworthiness of the Study (Qualitative) 27
Validity and Reliability 27
Trustworthiness of the Study 29
Ethical Considerations 31
Limitations 32
Summary 33
References 34

Chapter 1:

Chapter 1: Introduction

In this modern world, many developments and advancements are taking place to improve business operations, and functions as many business organizations and individuals adopt these technologies effectively to improve their business activities and lifestyles. However, these organizations are found to be facing many security concerns while they are using these technologies. This is mainly because the cyber attackers or hackers are involved in causing greater loss to the organizations or individuals by stealing or getting access to the stored data within the system or any other IoT devices. To reduce such security attacks or threats to the possible extent, the significance of cybersecurity is increasing day by day. The technology adopted by the business organizations to offer higher security to their networks or system from all the cyber threats can be defined as cybersecurity.

As many of the cyber threats or attacks are faced by business organizations, these results have greater effects and negatively impact their business (Hinde, 2001). Some of these cyber-attacks include phishing, malware attacks, spear phishing, brute force attack, credential stuffing, ransomware, and so on. In addition, some of these cyber threats include social engineering, third-party software, vulnerabilities due to cloud computing, challenges in handling corporate security, and so on. Conducting an effective analysis of various types of cyber threats and issues and to provide meaningful information which will be helpful for the readers or other researchers to know more about the attacks, threats, and issues that result with the ineffective and improper adoption of the cybersecurity technology.

The entire research paper is being organized with the first chapter of this paper mainly deals with the introduction, which includes the background, problem statement, significance of the selected topic, conceptual framework, research questions, and the purpose of this study. The second chapter in this paper mainly deals with the literature review. The third chapter deals with the methodology, and the final chapter is about the summary and the conclusion of the research paper.

Background of the Study

From the last decades, it has been found that many business organizations are facing many difficult security challenges due to the rapid increase of cyber threats and attacks (Hinde, 2001). These are mainly due to the increase of various technological developments and advancements. Cyber attackers and hackers are using this advanced technology to cause greater loss and effects to business organizations mainly to gain their benefits. To reduce these effects to the maximum extent, many organizations aim to know the main causes of these cyber attacks or threats that are likely to occur within their systems. Therefore, many researchers are trying to provide important information about these various types of cyber threats and attacks so that organizations can know about these threats and attacks and adopt the proper measures to prevent them to a greater extent (Hinde, 2001).

Problem Statement and Significance of the Study

Problem statement

Every business organization aims to successfully conduct its business by achieving all its business goals and objectives without facing any disturbances. However, in achieving this, many difficulties are facing by organizations because of the various security issues that are rising day by day to the business organizations due to the continuous increase of cyber-attacks and threats by cyber attackers or hackers. This is mainly because many organizations are not aware of analyzing the cyber attacks or threats effectively and successfully. Therefore, every business organization must have the potential knowledge about the cause of the various cyber-attacks and threats.

Significance of the study

From the last decades, to reduce the effect and cause of the various cyber threats and attacks, many researchers are trying to provide meaningful information by conducting their research effectively on the significance of cybersecurity. Due to which the significance of conducting cybersecurity research is increasing rapidly. As useful information about the various issues and types of cyber threats, attacks by conducting an effective analysis is being provided within this paper.

Theoretical Foundations

Cybersecurity means protecting and securing programs, networks, data, and other confidential information from unattended or unauthorized access, change, or destruction. In the current world, cybersecurity is crucial because of cyber attacks and security threats or issues. For protecting the data, many business organizations and IT companies are developing better software. The main motive of that software is to secure and safeguard the data. This security is very important because it not only helps in securing crucial information but also for our system from different cyber attacks. After China and the U.S, India has more internet users. The rise of modern technologies mainly ranges from Big Data and IoT to machine learning and artificial intelligence. Based on that, technology has transformed the way that all organizations evolve, compete, and operate. When many things are deployed strategically, modern emerging technologies offer various organizations a better leg and enormous insight into better operations. They should also maintain effective control over the competitive business.

The changing nature of every digital environment leads to increasing hackers and cybercriminals with more dangerous tools and larger attack surfaces. Many vulnerable endpoints of artificial intelligence platforms better crack the employee credentials from the networks related to the Internet of Things. Additionally, the evolution of every workplace technology improves the refinement of cyberattacks. Managed services providers and their clients related to analyzing cybersecurity challenges and issues they are facing. Many companies are increasing and relying on related technology in many stakes of growing data beaches. Understanding every range of threats can regulate many obligations that need to meet the better position for investing effective tools in protecting the infrastructure of IT customers. One of the days to commit this cybercrime is mostly independent of computer devices or networks. These cybercrimes also include various economic frauds that are mostly done to destabilize the economy of the country, transaction systems, and banking security through acquiring data of credit or debit and financial theft. Generally, these cybercrimes are mostly existing instantly, like targeting or focusing on the computer mainly by spreading various computer viruses. One of the common attacks is a denial of service. It is a problem that attempts to make a network resource or machine unavailable to various intended users. It can easily suspect different services connected to the network that may be permanent or temporary. So, hindering the other operations of a service or website through data destruction and data alteration is changing differently. The current situations of harming someone’s reputation, inferring a fake identity, threatening email, and other virtual impersonation primarily come under misusing this social media of insulating communal violence and creating tolerance leads to various inciting riots.

As business companies are becoming more reliant on the digital world, their exposure to cyber-attacks or threats increases in return. It certainly does not imply that all the organizations go for critical investments, then their potential surface should be aware of dangers and issues. The specific environment of the internet of things networks to boost reliance on the particular cloud and its problems are internally linked to how companies operate on present business. For instance, IoT networks mainly functioned by way of hundred connected network devices distributed across the office building, supply chain, and most importantly, workspace. These devices can be connected to the WAN, and cyber attackers can easily manage them to compromise an individual’s assets to breach the rest of the organization’s network. Relating to that, investing more could increase the company’s risks in processing and storing proprietary offsite data. Generally, the expansion of this cloud computing can also enable many benefits that include cost savings and greater organizational flexibility. It relies on different clouds such as hybrid, private, or public that primarily require the detailed protocol for cybersecurity. Some providers come under the third party because they may or may not be responsible for cloud security. So, cloud computing and IoT networks are not alone in relating to many companies because they are the only new range for the issues in cybersecurity. Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, DevOps, Blockchain, and other emerging technologies will take a better interest in the digital environment security. However, these technologies should reap many possible advantages of modern technologies in mitigating cybersecurity issues.

The development of modern capabilities and platforms leads to many competitive organizations up to many critical vulnerabilities. Managed service providers must analyze what tactics cybercriminals will use to benefit the unprotected and unprepared organizations. Ransomware, DDoS attacks, and Botnets are some types of digital weapons that cyber attackers will use to compromise confidential information and breach networks. Even though many strategies exist, the latest wave in the innovative workplace is increasing the specific environment of cloud computing, and IoT networks make these attacks easier and more devastating.

Preventing a breach of the system and its networks requires effective protection against various cyber threats and cyberattacks. For every incident, the proper countermeasures should be used or deployed to deter it from influencing a weakness or vulnerability. The first-line defenders in an organization should focus on how to implement and assess effective security controls. Then some of the best ways to prevent cyber threats or issues will include anti-malware software, installing spam filters, implementing security awareness training, expanding cybersecurity policies, installing endpoint response & detection, and deploying better generation firewalls. For better measures, businesses should also utilize various cybersecurity measures to maintain their cash flow, business data, and customer data safely online.

Due to all these high internet penetrations and cyber threats or issues, cybersecurity technology is becoming the world’s biggest necessity because the threats and cybersecurity issues are too dangerous to the country’s security and successful business organizations. For this security, the companies and governments, and the citizens must spread awareness in the society to update better network security to the system settings to properly utilize the antivirus software so that every network and system security settings will stay malware and virus free.

Researcher’s Positionality

Cybersecurity has progressed considerable attention from the last decade due to its potential to protect government information against increasing cyber-attacks and threats. However, as IT is developing and advancing, the dangers and issues of cybersecurity are also increasing. The use of cyberspace, such as cell phones, the internet, computer, and some other digital devices to perpetrate a crime by an organized or individual group, is called a cyber attack or cybercrimes. Generally, hackers use many codes and software in cybersecurity to commit crimes related to computers. In addition, those attackers are also trying to exploit various weaknesses in the hardware and software design through malware uses.

Moreover, this hacking is one way to pierce the inferring with their functioning and defenses of protected computer systems. Problem-like malware is commonly used to gather sensitive information, disrupt computer operation, and access private computers. It usually presents in the form of active content, scripts, code, and software. It also refers to different forms of intrusive or hostile software such as rootkits, adware, worms, and Trojan Horses. The simplest thing will be to up on rest and security, easy to know that data is crucial to change the early passwords. Many companies will assist a password manager in a sticky password to maintain a better path of everything. These applications will help in situations of secure or unique passwords for better track of the proper security. Using antivirus software and two-factor authentication also assists effective protection, makes things harder for the cyber attackers, and maintains much software.

Purpose of the Study

In the last decade, the significance and the attention towards cybersecurity are increasing due to the rise of various cyber threats and attacks. The main purpose of this study is to conduct a significant and effective analysis of cybersecurity issues, attacks, and threats. Thus, the most valuable information is being provided by selecting the effective conceptual framework to make the research successful by fulfilling all the research objectives and goals as every business organization aims to expand its business successfully worldwide by increasing its business reputation and brand value. However, this cannot be achieved when there is any cause of the cyber threats and attacks within the organization, leading to a decrease in their business reputation within the global market, and it will not be easy to expand their business successfully. To avoid this, organizations need to have the potential knowledge about the various cyber-attacks, threats, and issues that result in their business failure. Therefore, this proposal seeks to discuss key aspects to obtain effective analysis that relates to the various cyber-attacks and threats. First, the significance of cybersecurity is provided, then the different types of cyber-attacks and threats, effects, major reasons for these cyber-attacks and threats; and finally, the measures that the business organizations can adopt to reduce the occurrence of these cube attacks and threats to the maximum extent.

Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses

· What role does cybersecurity play in today’s world?

· What are the effects that business organizations face due to cyber-attacks and threats?

· What are the major reasons that lead to cause these attacks and threats within the organizations?

· What are the measures that business organizations can adopt to reduce these cyber-attacks and threats?

Significance of study

This section deals with the significance of the current topic chosen in the field of study. Many insights provide a consistent view on the concept of cybersecurity, reviewed threats and issues related to business intelligence. As the threats and the business issues are increasing day by day, the research in the security field is termed as a mandatory one. To analyze the security threats and issues managed in the business, working on the cybersecurity activities and the operational execution are experienced with the relevant actions.

This research field is the higher insight to work to know the protection factors from network security, operating systems, data manipulations, and cyber attacks. It will ensure the monitoring cause of the system specifications in mitigating the relevant aspects, information access threats. Every information technology is meant to have affected one or the other sides of the threats in impacting the security of the business. This means that the simplification of the IT concerns is simplified based on the activity. The research that is needed to understand the whole perception of presenting the cyber-related facts and practices followed in security.

Moreover, each of the articles chosen as a reference for the work will help generate the review on the insights created as per the security vulnerable actions in the business world. To make things work in the business actions in a more reliable way, it turned out to be a great experience to work in security that pretends to be the most incurring aspect in today’s world of business. Every category of data was meant to be as the data possibilities in being informative towards the end of the business detailing. The research questions in the security sections are meant to be the protective ones that integrate the organizational networks and the control structures of the business orientations.

Definition of the Terms

This section majorly works on the credibility of the terms relevant to the topic of present discretion that was chosen. As an instance to work, we need to have an initial idea on the whole concept of cybersecurity, the defined concerns, threats, and security issues in the business actions. Then, each of the perceptions regulated in the view of the research is selected and tends to work as the familiar ones in the study of inference. The key terms in this field are cybersecurity, threats, data, attacks, firewall, authentication, encryption, hacker, etc. Apart from these consistent and most common factors, there are still many terms as the major ones for the current study.

Cyber Security

Cybersecurity is defined as the field of protection, which ensures security for the computer systems from cyber-attacks. It is considered a required field in managing security aspects in the business. Therefore, most companies tend to use cybersecurity principles in business activities for development methodologies.


Threats are referred to as the faults or damaged actions attacked in the business companies. It can either be internal or external ones where internal ones would occur because of the business’s employees.

Business Data

Data in business companies is referred to as the major instinct that regulates work concerns. It is the most important asset in making business activities get executed successfully.


Attacks in the business are known as the preceding view of threats where both seem to be the general cause of damage exemption in the workplace.


A firewall is system software that works with the idea of protection. A firewall is an intermediary system between the internet and the user’s computer. It works as a protective interface that helps the business world to address security concerns and provide security.


Authentication is a security factor that every organization prefers to ensure customer segmentation for business security. This would check in all the perceptions and work for the business benefits.

Data Encryption

It is the process through which data changes its form from one point to another through which the visibility of the data and the integrity can be ensured positively.


Hacker is a person who can be referred to in two ways, and one is positive and the other negative. This means that the positive one would help work for the insights caused in the business systems. However, at the same time, the negative ones use knowledge to hack other systems and imply fraud actions.

Incident response plan

An incident response plan in the business is referred to as the preexisting plan to be maintained by companies to work with technical and network security issues. This helps in working with unfortunate incidents and balances the business conditions.

These are the various terms used in regulating the business modules to be secured by implying the cybersecurity issues to be made in being proactive in the organizational views.

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study

This section of the current view summarizes the summary of the concept used and the mentioned insights as per the assignment. This includes various headers used in completing the assignment and their contribution towards the successful end of the procedures.

Chapter 1 has mainly dealt with the significance studies, the purpose of the view taken, the study presented for the topic, the definition of each term used in the contextual understanding of the dissertation. Apart from this section, working on research questions by knowing the frameworks and conceptualizing the problem chosen.

Chapter 2 will further work to review the existing literature and the work possibilities on the term and process of cybersecurity. Finally, the necessary workings and the contributions of the work culture towards the business in the chosen field are managed based on the integrated proofs.

Chapter 3 view is to provide the overview by researching in practical ways. This means that the methodological approaches and the questions meant to be asked in the past have to be solved here. Only then the comprehensive study would be meaningful and respective towards the management of ethical aspects.

Hence, the research brought the section into designing the field of the problem and then worked with the data manipulation aspects. Here comes the first work to collect the data, then work on the ways to use it by then working with the data effectively. All these procedures would make up a problem to be solved in summarizing the research process results. The evaluation and work processes in this section are meant to be reasonable with the concept of security maintenance that would create possible relations with the business management.

Chapter 2

· Introduction to the chapter

· Transition from Ch. 1—briefly reiterate why it is important to study your topic.

Due to the rapid increase of advanced technologies in this modern and digital world, many business organizations are adopting these advanced technologies. They are improving their business operations and technologies to the maximum extent. But besides this, the organizations face many security concerns due to the cyber attacks and threats, which cyber attackers and hackers mainly cause. Cyber attackers specifically aim to access business data or steal business data to gain benefits by causing greater loss to the organizations (“WHAT IS CYBERSECURITY AND WHAT CYBERSECURITY SKILLS ARE EMPLOYERS SEEKING?”, 2019). Therefore it is essential for business organizations to prevent such attacks or threats from occurring within the organization. To ensure this successfully, the entire business organization needs to have the potential knowledge regarding the effective analysis of cybersecurity threats and issues. The following are some of the potential cybersecurity threats and issues that are facing mostly by the organizations. These include malware, Trojan horse, ransomware, phishing, and many more. Thus the significant purpose of this study is that all the useful information regarding the different types of cybersecurity issues and threats were defined in this paper so that it could be helpful for the organizations to create awareness among every people involved to work for the particular organization. This could help detect all the potential cyber threats or issues that are likely to occur within the organization before they occur by the cyber attackers. The effective learnings of this paper will be very helpful in gaining potential knowledge about cybersecurity issues and threats.

· Provide an overview summary of the chapter: What does the research say about your topic?

As cybersecurity issues and threats are increasing daily, many business organizations face adverse effects in making their business successful. These are mainly due to the practices that cyber attackers and threats follow. In this chapter, the various cyber threats and issues have been defined briefly, and also the brief information about cybersecurity and its effects have been defined so that it will be possible for the business organizations to know more about the cybersecurity effects and the threats and issues that are likely to occur within the organizations and may result with great business loss. Also, the measures that have to be followed by the business management to prevent such cyber threats or issues to the maximum extent have been defined in the chapter. Some of these security measures include offering effective training for all the employees to bring awareness regarding identifying the cyber threats and issues before they occur and impact the business operations and functions (Katzan, 2016). Also, by adopting the high secured cybersecurity software such as the effective authentication system within the organizations, limiting the access over the sensitive business data by the users will ne helpful in ensuring the successful prevention of the occurrence of such cybersecurity threats and issues to the maximum extent for the business organizations. Finally, several suggestions have been recommended to the business organizations so that they could be able to overcome the cause of the cybersecurity threats and issues to the possible extent.

· Provide an outline of the chapter.

The following are several topics related to cybersecurity threats and issues outlined in this chapter. In the introduction section, firstly, the background of the study is the significance of enhancing cybersecurity within the business organizations has been defined. The problem statement, which explained the main concerns associated with cybersecurity and was being faced by the business organizations, was considered. The practical problems resulting from cybersecurity have been defined successfully. Along with this, the significance of selecting this topic for conducting the research effectively has been limited significantly. Then in the theoretical and conceptual framework, the appropriate framework that suits better for proceeding the effective conductance of this study has been selected. In this, the important information regarding the various cybersecurity threats and issues was defined effectively. Then the researcher’s position has been stated in the effective conductance of this study. Then the purpose of surveying the various problems and threats has been defined by selecting the three research questions by limiting the definitions of multiple terms included in this research paper. Finally, the summary of the conductance of this study has been provided effectively as the information that was outlined in this chapter is mainly found to be very useful for the learning in improving and gaining the potential knowledge which can be applied in their professional lives.

· Review significant prior research. Keep this focused on your research topic and RQ(s).

· What has been studied?

In the present study on cybersecurity, the threats, and issues, the main aim is to know how cybersecurity plays a vital role in all the existing fields and study the problems and attacks related to cybersecurity. To make a prior knowledge in this section, the study has mainly concentrated on the past inferring and the impact of the cybersecurity field in various attacks and issues related to security in the business world. As a crucial field of this view, the study on the facts of cybercrimes is a well-known and illegal activity. Cybercrime has come into the picture mainly due to the use of the computer in the theft aspects of security ranges of sensitive information. So, focusing on the cybercrimes and different security concerns impacted through it is majorly researched in the overall study process. To handle these attacks and vulnerable threats of cybercrime, cybersecurity as a technology has been introduced and made vital to imply in most of the business findings. The need for cybersecurity to be utilized and worked through different phases, the possibility incurred in the business security is also made to get in a stage to deal with issues and attacks caused in cybercrime. The initial way cybersecurity has been made in the business and the different forms of trends that have changed business security have made their ways a crucial part of this study. Other factors that impact the field of security are primarily concerned in this view. The work analysis would be made in detail that it is properly managed and worthy of keeping instead (Škiljić, 2020).

· How has your topic been studied?

The topic chosen to evaluate the need for cybersecurity and work on the challenges that can be managed using cybersecurity was studied based on the practical measures and the real-life organized basics …