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THE LAKOTA COMMUNITY 1

The Lakota Community.

Indiana Tech

01/10/2022

Research Question: What are the challenges currently facing the Lakota Community?

Introduction.

Prior to the “Discovery” of the Americas by Christopher Columbus during 1492, it was not an unoccupied landmass but there were communities who were already leading their lives there. These communities which later came to be referred to as Native Americans were complex people who lived as communities that had kingdoms that were sovereign (Smith, 2015). However, with the colonization of America by Britain to settle her excess population and to further bolster her productivity as a nation, these communities became displaced and were forced into reservations by the signing of treaties with the colonizers. The treaties permitted the countries to be perceived as sovereign nations however under America (Smith, 2015). They did not give up their freedom; they rather became more like wards of the United States government. The community that will be the subject of the discourse is one among the 500 communities that consisted of the Native Americans; the Lakota People (Smith, 2015). At present, the Sioux people are recognized as a sovereign nation by the Federal government; however there are still challenges that threaten the existence of the Sioux people presently and threaten their existence and continual of their culture.

History of the Lakota People.

Also referred to as the people of the Standing Rock, the Lakota people are among the first Native American tribes that inhabited the North Americas prior to the arrival of the colonizers. They are referred to as members of the Great Sioux Nation and are divided into 3 distinct groups that are dependent the dialect that they communicate with and the places that they occupied. Etymologically, the name of the tribe, Lakota, implied friendship or allies (Smith, 2015). These individuals were a founding group of the seven council fires that were made up of seven tribal bands. Further, The Lakota were considered to be the largest division of the people who made up the Great Sioux nation and they consisted of seven sub-divisions (Gibbon, 2018). Each of the subdivisions was marked out by differences in their languages, the cultures that they observed, political differences and territorial differences.

During the late 17th century, the Lakota people were occupying the upper regions of the Mississippi region but were forced to the plains that are found to the West of the region as a result of the tribal wars over the trade of fur (Gibbon, 2018). Native Americans were renowned buffalo hunters and as a result, war between the tribes concerning buffalo fur was inevitable. Around the year 1730, horses were introduced to the tribes and as a result, they became fierce buffalo hunters. The Lakota were a strong and fierce tribes and the warriors that made up their ranks were nothing short of legendary (Gibbon, 2018). Before entering into a treaty with the U.S government, the Lakota and other tribes attacked and burnt down their lodges and were also wont to attack emigrant trains. These attacks in turn prompted responses from the U.S government and resulted in casualties to both sides of the battle. However, in a battle waged over the rights to mine in what the Lakota regarded as their sacred grounds, the U.S army lost and it resulted in the signing if a treaty (Gibbon, 2018). Presently, the Lakota occupy five major reservations that are found in the western Dakota Region.

Challenges facing the Lakota People.

Mass incarceration and policing.

The Black Lives matter movement has in a large part resulted in the creation of awareness concerning the mistreatment of Black People in America and managed to garner support as well as make national headlines. While the brutalization of Black people has resulted in an uproar, similar instances of brutalization that are done against Native Americans go by unnoticed. According to a report, Paul Castaway, a mentally unstable member of the Lakota people was shot and killed by cops in Denver (Harrington & Harrington, 2017). The death of Paul led to a number of protests that were against the Mistreatment by the police and it also shed light on such incidences against the Native people that go by unnoticed. According to data compiled by the Center of Disease Control, the percentage of Native Americans that are killed by Police make up 2% of the total deaths by police while the tribes are only 1% of the total population of the country (Harrington & Harrington, 2017). Further, Native Americans are also prone to mass incarceration especially in areas where they significantly represented in the population. In South Dakota, Native Americans make up nine percent of the entire population but in the prisons, they are 29% of total inmates (Harrington & Harrington, 2017). The issue of mass incarceration is however as a result of overlapping and unresolved conflicts between tribal, federal and state jurisdictions. There is no clear cut rule defining who should punish crimes committed and at times, Native Americans may find themselves punished more than once for offences that are committed.

Impoverishment and joblessness.

For almost all the nations of Native Americans, they are faced by the challenge of high poverty rates as well as unemployment. Seventeen percent of Native Americans that reside in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands and 27% of Naïve Americans were fund to live in poverty (Harrington & Harrington, 2017). This is in accordance ti data that was collected by the U.S Census Bureau. The national figures are however said to distort the prevalence of cases of poverty on the Indian Reservations a d also in the native communities that are found in Alaska. According to reports that were published during the year 2012, the three poorest counties that are in the U.S encompassed Sioux Reservations that are found in North and South Dakota and that are popularly made up of the Lakota people. The poverty rate in these regions is estimated at 43.2% which is thrice the national poverty average (Harrington & Harrington, 2017). Further, the unemployment rate stands at 60% as of the year 2014.

Exploitation of Natural resources.

All throughout the history of the Americas, the Natives land was grabbed so that natural resources could be effectively exploited. Indians clashed with miners as they attempted to enter into their lands in the search of gold. At present, the exploitation of natural resources still continue to pose a threat to the Indians. A case study was the construction of an Oil pipeline to transport Oil from the Bakkhen Oil Fields. The Dakota Access Pipeline Protest was a movement that was begun in early 2016 and was a reaction to the approval of construction of Energy Transfer’s Partner’s Dakota Access pipeline. It was designated to pass through Bakkhen Oil Fields in western North Dakota and would cross beneath the river Missouri and Mississippi and under Lake Oahe that borders the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The protest against the pipeline was as a result of the threat it posed to the waters of the region and was also a threat to tribal burial grounds and historically significant cultural sites (Marshall, 2017).

Healthcare.

When compared to the general populations, the quality of health that is received by Native Americans is below par. There are massive health disparities that are experienced by the Native Americans when compared to the other populations. As a result, these tribes are prone to higher rates of mortality when infected with such conditions as obesity, substance abuse and STDs. Though Native Americans are eligible to receiving healthcare under the Indian Health Service Act, it is only an estimated one pout of every three people that are insured. Just like a majority of the programs that are supposed to cater for the welfare of Indian People, The Indian Health service is underfunded and as a result, it is unable to cater out health services as would be required. Basic services such as emergency contraception are often unavailable thus forcing the Indians to travel for hundreds of miles in an attempt to locate healthcare services.

Government responses to challenges facing the Lakota People

The government has attempted to come up with solutions to some of the challenges that face Native Americans. Among one of the moves by the government is the construction of educational and health facilities in Indian Reservations such that they can be easily accessed. Further, the government has enacted policies that are aimed at prevention of exploitation of resources at areas that are considered to be important to the history of Indians (McKenzie & Hudson, 2016). However, in spite of the attempts by the government, the plight of the great Sioux People still, remain apparent. The funds that are directed by the government towards the enacting of the said policies are at most times inadequate. Further, there is still issues such as mass incarceration that can only be resolved by resolution of the roles of the Indian governments, the state and the federal governments (Marshall, 2017).

Conclusion.

At present, the Sioux people are recognized as a sovereign nation by the Federal government; however there are still challenges that threaten the existence of the Sioux people presently and threaten their existence and continual of their culture. The people who were once renowned as a great and fierce warriors have been reduced to communities that are plagued by poverty and that ever becoming more reliant on the government to continue preserving their culture.

References.

Smith, A. (2015). Native American feminism, sovereignty, and social change. Feminist Studies, 31(1), 116-132.

McKenzie, B., & Hudson, P. (2016). Native children, child welfare, and the colonization of Native people. The challenge of child welfare, 125-141.

Harrington, C. F., & Harrington, B. G. (2017). Fighting a different battle: Challenges facing American Indians in higher education. Journal of Indigenous Research, 1(1), 4.

Gibbon, G. (2018). The Sioux: The Dakota and Lakota Nations (Vol. 6). John Wiley & Sons.

Marshall III, J. M. (2017). Walking with grandfather: The wisdom of Lakota elders. Sounds True.

2

2

Digital discourse in community

Indiana Tech

ENG 2322

12/08/2021

Online gaming

Since it possesses any of the six attributes that a category would embody in order to be called one, online gaming counts as a debate culture, and is a branch of the broader discourse community known as video games. I’ve had more than my fair share of exposure to the various tactics and characters that come from each game over the months of practice multiple types of computer games. Because of the large number of people who participate in video games, referred to as “gamers,” a distinct culture has emerged, dividing the once cohesive “gamers” into “casual players” who play on a regular basis and “hardcore gamers,” who show a strong emotional attachment to their favorite game (Perreault, 2021). These gamers are what render online gameplay such a divisive environment with many divisions based on the kind of user you are.

The possible explanation that digital gaming is a discourse community is everybody has the same goal: to just have fun and enjoy the computer game and to give it your best shot to win. People share similar beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions, though this varies depending on what type of content game being played. Numerous gamers in video games encounter the option of playing the game a solitary game where they only value about themselves or joining a team and helping the game win. This is a conundrum that every online gamer will encounter at some point. That everybody tries to show that they’ll be the greatest, but in the final moment, you can only win or lose. As a result, once everyone has been exposed to a game for a sufficient amount of time, the common practice is to employ as many resources as possible in order to achieve the common goal of winning and defeating the opposing team. This includes being selfless at times and not attempting to prove your superiority by playing as part of a team rather than as a person. Interaction, the most essential aspect of any video game, is the most popular reason for somebody to begin playing as a team member.

Dialogue is the “bread and butter” of operating as a squad whilst being able to concentrate on one issue at a time, rather than having to accomplish several tasks at once at a much slower speed on your own. There is a plethora of video game styles above anything I’ve seen. Communication is crucial in all of the kinds of games I’ve played. Teams can fly in groups to quickly secure simple targets and win in a shorter amount of time if they communicate well. It also makes for better teamwork between all people and everybody knows what everyone else is doing, and it encourages everyone to give it their all not just personally but also as a squad (Colby, 2021). Many computer games would be more focused on individual ability and fewer on teamwork if coordination was not present, which might make games easier if you are not a successful team member. Don’t worry, there’s a genre for everybody.

For each category of individual, there are several different video game genres. Personally, I enjoy playing League of Legends, a massively multiplayer online arena (MOBA) game in which the aim is to kill your opponent’s foundation. Another category is role playing games, or RPGs. World of Warcraft is one of the most famous RPGs in the world. The belief in this game style is that everybody has a particular task to perform, and it is their job. They must achieve their mission at all expense or risk dying and wasting a lot more than they would want. They must also complete their task when collaborating with the majority of the team. A first-person shooter, or FPS for short, is the last and most well-known form of game. This genre places a greater emphasis on human action than on teamwork. This is illustrated in Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare 2, which necessitates rapid reflexes and the ability to remember all of the positions on the specified globe. Communication is used in many of these various forms of games to include details on something that will help the player win.

In any of the earlier in this thread computer games, there are several ways to chat. The bulk of contact in a wide online gaming community is achieved by typing, with Skype chats with teammates tossed in for good measure. Since interaction is so crucial in a position game, the majority of communicating is achieved via the developed communications protocol or through Skype, TeamSpeak 3, or Raid Call. There are also other free chat services that enable participants to engage in large community conversations; however, businesses that want you to register for a greater cloud space use charge a fee for greater group meetings. Finally, while contact is not a vital aspect with first shooters, it does assist in the ultimate objective of gaining the present match. While the game’s aim is for you to focus on reflexes, collaboration will help you develop your abilities by encouraging you to collaborate with others to achieve those goals and by letting you know where others are hidden. The Xbox One or PlayStation 4 are the most popular platforms for showing this method of contact. Both of these devices provide monthly subscriptions for the use of voice communication, which is included in the systems, as well as the option to play with other people online. The more “hardcore gamers” are typically internet, and they can quickly distinguish themselves as recreational or diehard players.

Since most online gaming fans will know all there is to learn more about computer game environment, it is incredibly easy to see who belongs in the crowd and who is not. A basic query such as “Do you know what the Consumer Electronics Expo, or E3, is?” can decide whether or not anyone participates in the video game world. With both video game fans and businesses, the Computer Gaming Expo is the largest and most critical week of the year. During this expo, computer game publishers reveal what will be released in the coming year and what online players can expect to see. During the expo, several businesses show off brand new releases by showing trailers on several screens throughout the convention center. Many firms take advantage of the chance to show off their latest technologies, such as upcoming game consoles. Last year’s Electronic Entertainment Expo saw Sony, Nintendo, and Microsoft unveil the PlayStation 4, Wii U, and Xbox One, as well as show off new functionality and announce a potential release date for the forthcoming games. Smaller firms take advantage of this ability to show off upcoming technology accessories like the Oculus Rift, which enables gamers to view every video game in absolute 3D (Bell, 2021). Video games can be divided into several various divisions or genres in this debate community; yet, all real video game fans have one thing in common. The one characteristic that all real fans have in common is that they are all ambitious and aspire to be the greatest at the game, winning tournaments and striving to be the greatest player in the game.

Although providing clear lines of contact with your teammates is helpful, it is not necessarily the safest choice. Being quiet may also be greater than talking with your teammates. In addition, each gaming category has its own lexicon. Since the typical terms are only common in such particular video games, that is unlike everything else outside of the video game. When you have someone, who does not want to be a team member in a video game, cooperation is a negative thing. The person is more interested in demonstrating their individual talent than in winning the game. These are the individuals who typically get angry when playing a game when something horrible arises. It usually finishes with the individual shouting at the members of the squad, severing the team’s initial bond (Andersen, 2021). That one person can be the team’s savior by aiding and refraining from shouting, or they can be the one who undoes all of the team’s diligent work prior to making a single error. As you can see, contact, while often beneficial, can often be the demise of a completely enjoyable game.

Despite the fact that most gamers are intensely aggressive, they never lose sight of the most crucial feature of the game: it is, after all, just a game, and the objective is to have fun. People avoid playing and turn to a different game until the game ceases being fun and becomes something of a hassle. People are also attempting to enculturate into the video game debate culture, which is also relatively young. The street art that new adherents must conform to typically happens inside the extremist; this category of individual displays intense indignation when everything in the video game does not go as planned; this type of individual is most widely recognized as a “rager.” These citizens often have a lexis that contains a lot of cuss terms. An ordinary gamer will easily become used to this form of language. It also helps that today’s games can be played in a number of languages, enabling people to have multiliteracies, mostly English and a foreign language. Computer games have been such an integral aspect of global society that the media has begun to report reports on them.

The media has recently played an important role in campaigning for the video game community’s continued development, often for the positive, yet sometimes for the worse. This is because the media considers the video game industry to be a blight on culture because it encourages abuse among children, and the media claims there is a direct link between increasing child aggression and increased video game visibility. The media praises the computer game industry at major conventions like the Electronic Entertainment Expo and it is beneficial for the general perception of video game developers making profits and becoming profitable. The media promotes all the positives of playing video games and the latest games and technologies that are being launched at this time of year.

I used a natural settings method, similar to Lucille P. McCarthy’s, to extract the details described above. “I joined the analysis study with no theories to evaluate and no newly invented task,” this statement says. (Chapter 234 of A Stranger in Strange Lands) I was able to deduce that the video game culture is a close-knit group of people who are excited about developing their abilities in a particular game. I used evaluation and self-participation as testing instruments by the end. I was able to show that many who were more vocal in conversation were more interested in the video game environment using an action framework.

References

Andersen, I. V. (2021). Hostility online: Flaming, trolling, and the public debate. First Monday.

Bell, K. (2021). “I am sorry if I have ever given you guys any crap”: the communicative practices within Telltale Games’ online forums. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 1-15.

Colby, R. (2021). The Ethics of Treating Online Gaming Forums as Research Data. In The Ethics of Playing, Researching, and Teaching Games in the Writing Classroom (pp. 255-271). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Perreault, G. (2021). Reporting Religion: Narrating Religion in Gaming Journalism. Journal of Media and Religion, 1-15.

ENG 2322


College of Professional Studies


Project #4: Portfolio


Your syllabus includes the following information about your portfolio:








Portfolio

: At the end of the semester, students will choose 2 of the essays they have written, substantially revise them, and, in an appendix, provide samples of process writing related to the two major papers. The portfolio should begin with an introduction that contextualizes the artifacts and accounts for any course outcomes not directly seen in the artifacts.

I will evaluate the papers you submit and assign a grade to the portfolio, which is worth 100 points, approximately 1
0% of your final grade for ENG 2322. The portfolio is your opportunity to showcase your best work. This is your time to shine! The portfolio will represent your work during the semester and should exemplify your ability to write, as well as revise and edit your own work. You should submit your entire portfolio in ONE Word document.



Portfolio Components:


  • The portfolio should begin with an introduction that explains which two papers you chose and why. The document should also contain a statement about your writing strengths and weaknesses, as well as a plan to address your weaknesses as you continue to write college-level papers. Next, you should work to discuss whether you believe you have met the specific learning objectives for this course (see below). Finally, the introduction paper should contain a realistic assessment of your work – what grade do you think your portfolio deserves, and why?


Primary Learning Objectives

  • Determine appropriate rhetorical techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations
  • Use the writing process to discover and reassess ideas


  • Compose valid arguments in multiple modalities
  • Support arguments with appropriate types of evidence
  • Evaluate sources for accuracy and authority
  • Navigate print and digital repositories of information
  • Use the rhetorical situation to determine the appropriate citation system
  • Describe how inquiry contributes to a life of significance and worth

    • After your introduction, you should include your two
      revised, polished essays that you have chosen to showcase from this course. As a reminder, your options are Project #1, Project #2, and Project #3. Because you have had the opportunity to write, identify errors, and correct them, you are expected to submit papers that are very clean and well written.



    • After your two polished essays, you should include an appendix that contains the prewriting work that went into your two essays (e.g., brainstorming, journal entries, outlines, drafts, etc.). This appendix should show how your writing has been a process this semester. If you have handwritten any process work for your essays, you can take pictures of it and include those pictures in your Word document.






    Project #4 (Portfolio) Rubric

    10

    9-8

    7-6

    5-0

    Introduction demonstrates thoughtful reflection about personal writing skills

    Introduction addresses personal progress toward course learning objectives well

    Introduction is organized and well-written, with few errors

    Essay 1 has been significantly and thoughtfully revised in terms of content and critical thinking

    Essay 1 has been significantly and thoughtfully revised in terms of conventions and coherence

    Essay 1 represents high-quality academic writing fitting of ENG 2322

    Essay 2 has been significantly and thoughtfully revised in terms of content and critical thinking

    Essay 2 has been significantly and thoughtfully revised in terms of conventions and coherence

    Essay 2 represents high-quality academic writing fitting of ENG 2322

    Appendix contains a substantial amount of quality process work related to both essays

    Subtotals


    Total



    /100



    Writing Instructions



    Save your documents with your “Last Name Assignment Title” (EX: Smith Project #4).

    Assignments must use APA
    document formatting and citations.

    Assignments must fulfill assignment requirements and be proofread to be graded.

    Submission Instructions


    Submission deadlines are 11:59 pm on the due dates on the Course Calendar.