(240)-343-2585

 

Note: This is an annotated bibliography assignment, you can only to use four resources that I provided in this assignment. Two pages double spaced.

EACH SOURCE: HALF A PAGE ANNOTATION 

For this assignment, you will need to write annotated bibliographies for each of your sources. If you are unsure what an annotated bibliography is, it’s more or less an abstract or summary of what the source is about. There are plenty of examples online if you want to check out formatting. I’m not too concerned about that, though. This isn’t the Reference List for your paper, so you don’t need to be too formal.

the list of the four sources is in the word document attached 

the 3 pdf files contain the three first sources as listed in the word doc. 

the fourth one has a link so you will just copy and paste the link to see the article- ON THIS ONE, SPECIFICALLY YOU ARE ANNOTATING CHAPTER: ON Conflict in Relationships

Family Meals Buffer the Daily Emotional Risk Associated With Family
Conflict

Emma Armstrong-Carter
Stanford University

Eva H. Telzer
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Family meals have been associated with positive adolescent outcomes in cross-sectional and longitudinal
research. However, it is not known how adolescents experience family meals on a daily basis, and
whether family meals buffer stresses associated with interpersonal conflicts on the daily level. To address
this gap in the literature, adolescents (N � 396, 58% female, Mage � 14.57 years) completed diary
checklists for up to 14 days, reporting their emotions, experiences of family and peer conflict, and
whether they ate with their family that day. On days that adolescents shared a family meal, they felt
greater happiness and role fulfillment, and less burnout and distress. Moreover, family conflict was
associated with more negative emotionality only on days that adolescents did not also eat with the family.
Findings suggest that family meals buffer daily risks associated with familial conflicts. Follow-up
analyses suggest that these processes may be particularly important among older adolescents.

Keywords: adolescence, family meal, emotions, family conflict, peer conflict

During busy daily life, meals are often the only time when
family members come together to engage, and provide and receive
emotional support (Larson, Branscomb, & Wiley, 2006). Perhaps
in part because daily family meals represent a stable, routine, and
context for emotional connectedness (Goldfarb, Tarver, & Sen,
2014; Jones, 2018), family meals have been associated with many
positive outcomes across development. For example, adolescents
who more frequently eat with the family are less likely to be
overweight or underweight, have substance use problems, and
struggle with clinical depression (Fulkerson et al., 2006), and tend
to feel more emotionally close to parents and siblings (Fiese et al.,
2002) compared with their peers. The benefits associated with
family meals also extend beyond the home. Adolescents who more
frequently eat with the family tend to exhibit higher academic
performance (Eisenberg, Olson, Neumark-Sztainer, Story, & Bear-
inger, 2004), fewer antisocial behaviors (Fulkerson et al., 2006;
Prior & Limbert, 2013; Sen, 2010), and increased social compe-
tencies with peers (Fulkerson et al., 2006).

Prior research has been almost entirely cross-sectional, retro-
spective, or longitudinal, which can only tell us about average
meal eating behaviors between adolescents. This work has exam-
ined how average family meals at one time point relate to average
well-being at another time point (Goldfarb et al., 2014). To extend
prior research, it is important to clarify whether family meals are
associated with positive or negative emotions on the daily level.
Examining temporal relations at the daily level may help us to
understand the processes by which family meals promote long-
term well-being (Offer, 2013a, 2013b), as has been observed in
prior research. For example, if adolescents feel happier on days
that they eat with the family, this could partially explain why
family meals are associated with later positive social and emo-
tional adaptation.

Family Meals as a Protective Factor Against
Interpersonal Conflict

Family meals may translate into greater well-being by protect-
ing against the negative effects of daily stressors, such as conflict
in the home. On the daily level, sharing a family meal may
mitigate the negative impacts of family conflict by providing an
opportunity to make amends, internalize disputes less, engage
positively, and recover; thereby, offsetting distress caused by
conflict during the day. Supporting this notion, Family Systems
Theory and developmental theories of risk and resilience (Brod-
erick, 1993; Labella & Masten, 2018) have suggested that spend-
ing positive time together as a family after experiencing emotional
challenges can increase adolescents’ feelings of family cohesion
and emotional security, and promote resilience (Fiese et al., 2002;
Jones, 2018). Consistent with these theories, family meals have
been associated with greater emotional well-being among adoles-
cents experiencing ongoing difficult family relationships (Meier &
Musick, 2014). Indeed, the experience of coming together as a

This article was published Online First September 28, 2020
X Emma Armstrong-Carter, Graduate School of Education, Stanford

University; Eva H. Telzer, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

This article was prepared with support from the National Institutes of
Health Grant R01DA039923 and National Science Foundation Grant SES
1459719 provided to Eva H. Telzer, the Department of Psychology at the
University of Illinois, and the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Emma
Armstrong-Carter, Graduate School of Education, Stanford University,
520 Galvez Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, or to Eva H. Telzer, Department
of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill, 235 East Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, NC 27510. E-mail:
[email protected] or [email protected]

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Developmental Psychology
© 2020 American Psychological Association 2020, Vol. 56, No. 11, 2110 –2120
ISSN: 0012-1649 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0001111

2110

family to share a meal may be more important than the specific
meal itself (Larson et al., 2006). However, it remains unclear
whether family meals protect against emotional risks on the daily
level as well. If family meals reduce the distress that is asso-
ciated with family conflict the same day, this could represent
one daily pathway through which family meals ultimately con-
fer the greater well-being. Moreover, this could reveal a key
experience in the home that helps to support adolescents’ daily
emotional health.

In addition to buffering the negative costs of family conflict,
family meals may also protect youth in the face of conflict with
peers. Family meals can provide adolescents the opportunity to
express difficult feelings, receive emotional support from parents
and siblings, and distract from difficult emotions by engaging
positively with family (Fiese, Foley, & Spagnola, 2006, 2012;
Larson et al., 2006). For example, adolescents whose family mem-
bers express concern and emotional support during family dinners
tend to feel greater trust and belonging in the family, which may
foster resiliency even outside the home (Fiese et al., 2006; Larson
et al., 2006). Indeed, parents often use meal times to encourage and
coach youth through difficult experiences (Larson et al., 2006),
and this may include social challenges with peers. Consistent with
this notion, a family meal may provide adolescents the opportunity
to share their experiences of negative peer interactions or conflict
they encountered that day, receive emotional support, encourage-
ment and ideas for how to cope. In this way, family meals may
protect adolescents from emotional risk the same day; that is,
adolescents may go to bed feeling relatively happier and more
fulfilled after having a chance to express their challenges and
receive support (Ho et al., 2018).

Adolescence as a Sensitive Developmental Period

Adolescence is an essential developmental period for studying
processes related to family meals, interpersonal conflict, and youth
adaptation for several reasons. First, adolescents may benefit more
from family meals compared with children, if meals help to main-
tain connection with the family during the adolescent transition
toward increased autonomy and participation in activities outside
the home with peers (Brannen, 2002). Second, adolescents expe-
rience higher levels of daily interpersonal conflicts, which incurs
increased emotional risk (Chung, Flook, & Fuligni, 2011; Holm-
beck, 2018). In addition, adolescents also become more sensitive
to the negative effects of interpersonal conflicts, because they
experience hormonal shifts (Romeo, 2013), begin to develop their
own social identities that are highly influenced by their interac-
tions with others (Fuligni, 2019) and place increasing importance
on relationships with peers (Chung et al., 2011). These shifts may
be particularly pronounced in older compared with younger ado-
lescents (Holmbeck, 2018), who spend more of their day away
from the family with peers (Brannen, 2002). In light of this, family
meals might be even more of a protective factor during later
adolescence, compared with earlier adolescence. It is important to
understand if the interplay between family meals, conflict, and
adjustment varies across adolescent development, as this may
reveal key, specific developmental periods during which family
meals are more or less beneficial and protective.

Current Study

In the current study, we capitalized on the daily diary method in
a large and diverse sample of adolescents. We examined whether
family meals and family and peer conflict contribute to adoles-
cents’ positive or negative emotions on the daily level, and
whether family meals mitigate the emotional risks associated with
family and peer conflict. The daily diary method is uniquely useful
for examining questions related to adolescents’ emotions and daily
routines in the home (Telzer & Fuligni, 2009a). Youths’ reports of
their daily activities, behaviors, and feelings are more reliable and
accurate than when these processes are assessed using traditional
retrospective accounts from a single questionnaire (Bolger, Davis,
& Rafaeli, 2003). Daily diary methods also allow researchers to
examine whether specific events that occur on one day are asso-
ciated with feelings measured the same day. For example, on days
that adolescents share a meal with their family, are they more
likely to feel happy or distressed? While not causal, data of this
nature allow us to test within the same adolescent, whether family
meals and positive and negative emotions co-occur with each other
on the same day. In this way, we can hold constant the extraneous
traits and characteristics of both the individual adolescent and the
family. Daily diary methods also enable us to examine interactions
between multiple processes that occur on the daily level. For
example, does the daily association between interpersonal conflict
and emotions depend on whether the adolescent ate a meal with
their family that day? Prior literature that has examined links
between family meals and adolescent outcomes has used indexes
that are averaged across days or retrospective (Goldfarb et al.,
2014). More recent studies emphasize the importance of examin-
ing family experiences on the daily level, as family routines have
been shown to temporally fluctuate with emotions within days
(Armstrong-Carter, Ivory, Lin, Muscatell, & Telzer, 2020; Telzer
& Fuligni, 2009b). In particular, recent work has revealed signif-
icant daily fluctuations in adolescents’ happiness, distress, burn-
out, and role fulfillment (i.e., feeling like a good son, daughter, or
sibling), suggesting that these measures of emotions capture dis-
tinctive variability across days within adolescents, and are mean-
ingfully related to same-day family experiences. For example,
role-fulfillment has been linked to family behaviors with effect
sizes twice the size of more commonly measured constructs such
as happiness or distress (Armstrong-Carter et al., 2020), indicating
that it may be robustly and uniquely related to adolescents’ expe-
riences in the home the same day.

Using the daily diary method, we tested the following key
questions: (1) Is eating a meal with the family associated with
positive or negative emotions the same day? Given the observed
associations between family meals and positive developmental
outcomes in prior cross-sectional and longitudinal work, we hy-
pothesized that family meals would be associated with more pos-
itive emotions (e.g., happiness and role-fulfillment) and fewer
negative emotions (e.g., distress and burnout) the same day. We
tested multiple positive and negative emotions to both to allow for
the possibility that family meals might relate to different measures
simultaneously and divergently (e.g., increase happiness but also
increase distress, or increase happiness but decrease role-
fulfillment) and to be consistent with prior work (Armstrong-
Carter et al., 2020; Telzer & Fuligni, 2009a). (2) Are family and
peer conflict associated with positive or negative emotions on the

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2111FAMILY MEALS, CONFLICT, AND EMOTIONS

daily level, and does eating a meal with the family buffer (i.e.,
moderate) this association? Informed by developmental theories of
youth risk and resilience, which suggest that positive family ex-
periences can counteract the risks of negative experiences (Labella
& Masten, 2018), we hypothesized that family meals would buffer
the negative effects of family and peer conflict. (3) Do these
associations vary by age across early to late adolescence? Drawing
on evidence of increases in daily conflict, emotional risk, and
interpersonal sensitivity across adolescence (Holmbeck, 2018), we
hypothesized that older adolescents may benefit even more from
family meals, compared with younger adolescents. To follow up
and provide further evidence of directionality of effects, we con-
ducted additional sensitivity analyses. Specifically, we first con-
trolled for previous day emotions, and then tested potential spill-
over into emotions the next day.

Method

Participants

Participants were 396 adolescents (57.92% female) between the
ages of 11 and 18 years (Mage � 14.57 years, SD � 1.39 years).
The sample was racially and ethnically diverse: 38.89% identified
as non-Hispanic White (from here on referred to as White, N �
154), 26.77% Asian (N � 106, 13 of whom were mixed [e.g.,
Asian and White]), 16.67% Hispanic/Latinx (N � 66, 11 of whom
were mixed [e.g., Hispanic and White]), 10.8% African American
(N � 45, 9 of whom were mixed [e.g., African American and
White]), and 6.31% other race (N � 27, 16 of whom self-identified
as other and nine were mixed race). Approximately 10% of moth-
ers had less than an 8th grade education, 13% did not complete
high school, 24% completed high school, 27% completed postsec-
ondary education (college, trade, or vocational school), and 23%
completed graduate school (3% declined to answer). Participants
were recruited from the community using convenience sampling,
including posting flyers at schools, posting on listservs serving
ethnic minority families, recruiting participants from previous
studies who agreed to be contacted for other research studies, and
word of mouth. Participants were compensated $10 in total for
completing the daily diaries as well as a $20 bonus if inspection of
the data indicated that they had completed all the diaries on time.
Participants provided written consent/assent and procedures were
approved by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Com-
mittee on Human Subjects (Protocol #13378; Development of
Decision Making and Social Cognition).

Procedure

Participants were provided with diary checklists; most partici-
pants (80%) were provided 14 days of diaries, whereas 20% of
participants (N � 83) were only provided with 7 days of diaries.
Most participants (89.82%) completed all days of their dairies
(M � 93.87% of days, SD � 15.51% of days, range � 14.29 –
100%). There were 4,369 total person-day observations (Level 1
reports). Diaries included both weekdays and weekends. The order
of days differed between participants depending on the day of the
week that they started, but all participants had the same proportion
of weekday to weekend data if they completed all of the diaries.
Participants chose to complete the diaries either on paper (63.20%)

or via a secure website (36.80%). Participants who responded with
paper were given 14 manila envelopes and an electronic time
stamper (Dymo Corporation, Stamford, CT), which verified the
time that checklists were completed. The time stamper is a small
device that imprints the current date and time and is programmed
with a security code so that the correct date and time cannot be
changed. Participants were instructed to place their completed
checklists into an envelope each night and to stamp the seal of the
envelope with the time stamper. Participants who completed sur-
veys online were sent an e-mail with the link to each daily diary
survey, and the time and date of completion were recorded via the
website. The daily diary checklists were three pages long and each
took approximately 5–10 min to complete.

Measures

Family meals. Participants indicated on the daily checklist
whether or not they ate any meal with their family each day. We
chose this broad measure because the process of coming together
as a family has been associated with positive outcomes, and the
specific meal (i.e., breakfast, lunch, or dinner) may vary by family
and day and may be less important (Larson et al., 2006). To allow
for the possibility that the structure and timing of family meals
vary across different households, we did not specify or define
“family meal” any further in the daily checklist. As such, adoles-
cents were able to define family meals for themselves in the
context of their own experience. This item yielded a single dichot-
omous index of family meals, which was coded 0 � no family
meal, 1 � family meal.

Daily family conflict. Items on the daily checklist asked par-
ticipants to indicate whether they had engaged in different behav-
iors with family members each day. Each item was coded as 0 �
no, 1 � yes. Our measure of Family conflict was based on family
systems theory (Broderick, 1993), general self-report measures of
family conflict (e.g., Bloom, 1985), and other daily diary studies
(Chung et al., 2011). This was the mean of four items: you argued
with a sibling, you got into trouble or were punished by your
parents, you argued with a parent, you lied to parent (R1F � .77;
see Cranford et al., 2006 for more information on this reliability
statistic).

Daily peer conflict. Items on the daily checklist asked partic-
ipants to indicate whether they had engaged in different behaviors
with peers each day. Each item was coded as 0 � no, 1 � yes. Our
measure of Peer conflict was based on social relational theories of
adolescent development (Laursen & Collins, 1994), and other
self-reported measures of peer conflict (e.g., Marsee et al., 2011)
including those from prior daily diary studies (Chung et al., 2011).
It was the mean of 11 items: you hit, kicked, or shoved a peer, you
threatened, insulted, or made fun of a peer, you said something
mean behind a friend’s back, you excluded or left a friend out, you
lied to a friend, someone online or in a text message threatened,
insulted or made fun of you, you argued with a friend, you argued
with a boyfriend or girlfriend, you were excluded or left out by
friends, a peer said something mean behind your back, a peer
threatened, insulted, or made fun of you, R1F � .97. This measure
demonstrated acceptable within-person reliability of change
(RC � .71; Cranford et al., 2006).

Daily emotions. Daily emotions were assessed with items on
the daily checklist that were drawn from the Profile of Mood States

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2112 ARMSTRONG-CARTER AND TELZER

(McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971) and used in prior research
(Armstrong-Carter et al., 2020; Telzer & Fuligni, 2009a). Adoles-
cents used a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (ex-
tremely) to indicate “the extent to which they felt each emotion
that day.” The time of day for each emotion was not specified.
Happiness was calculated from two items: joyful and happy,
R1F � .87. Distress was calculated from nine items: sad, hopeless,
discouraged, on edge, unable to concentrate, uneasy, nervous,
stressed, worried, R1F � .88. Burnout was calculated from three
items: fatigue, exhausted, and worn-out, R1F � .87. Role Fulfill-
ment was calculated from two additional items in the daily diary in
which participants responded on a 7-point Likert-scale ranging
from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely) to report the extent to which
they felt like “a good son or daughter” and “a good brother or
sister” that day. Role fulfillment was calculated as the mean of
these two items, R1F � .86. Because adolescents answered the
daily diaries at the end of the day just before bedtime, family meals
occurred before adolescents reported their emotions. All emotion
composites demonstrated acceptable within-person reliability of
change (RCs � .71–.79). For all daily diary measures (i.e., family
and peer conflict, emotions), there was substantial within-person
variability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC � .43–.79) and
between-person variability across the diary days (ICC � .36 –.64).

Data Analysis

Our aim was to understand the daily association between eating
a meal with the family and positive and negative emotions, and
whether family meals buffer emotional reactivity associated with
daily interpersonal conflicts. We conducted linear mixed effect
models that nested days (Level 1) within participants (Level 2).
Fixed effects were tested at the level of participants (i.e., Level 2).
This statistical approach accounts for dependency within partici-
pants and introduces less bias because of missing data compared
with traditional statistical analyses, such as repeated measures
analysis of variance (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). We person-
centered all Level-1 predictors, and we included on the intercept
person-mean values for each of our daily predictors (i.e., family
meals, family conflict, and peer conflict; Curran & Bauer, 2011).

Model 1 tested family meals and interpersonal conflict (family
and peer) as simultaneous Level 1 predictors of each emotional
experience the same day. Model 2 additionally included an inter-
action term that was the product of family meal and each inter-
personal conflict variable (i.e., family conflict and peer conflict).

To test potential differences in observed associations by develop-
mental period, Model 3 included an additional three-way interac-
tion term between family meals, adolescent age, and each conflict
variable. We conducted additional sensitivity analyses first con-
trolling for prior day emotions and then testing next day emotions
as a dependent variable.

To probe significant cross-level interactions, we used the simple
slopes technique (Aiken, West, & Reno, 1991) to test the associ-
ations between interpersonal conflict and emotions on days when
there was or was not a family meal. For three-way interactions, we
split adolescents by the mean age for the sample, and plotted
two-way interactions within younger and older adolescents. All
analyses were conducted using Stata Software (StataSE, Version
15.1.632).

Results

Sample Characteristics

Table 1 displays descriptive statistics for sample constructs for
the full sample and by sex and race/ethnicity. On average, adoles-
cents ate a meal with the family on 61% of days. Family meals
were most common among Asian youth and least common among
Black youth, but did not differ by sex. Girls reported higher peer
conflict than boys, but family conflict did not vary by sex.

Bivariate correlations of mean values across days showed that
adolescents who ate more frequent family meals were younger,
r � �.09, p � .001 and experienced more family conflict, r � .05,
p � .002, and less peer conflict, r � �.04, p � .001. Adolescents
who experienced more family conflict were younger, r � �.08,
p � .001, and experienced more peer conflict, r � .21, p � .001.
There were no other significant correlations across days.

Multilevel analyses at the daily level showed that family meals
were not related to family conflict or peer conflict on the daily
level (p � .078). Family and peer conflict co-occurred on the same
days (B � 0.06, SE � 0.01, p � .000), consistent with prior
research (Chung et al., 2011).

Family Meals Are Associated With More Positive and
Fewer Negative Emotions

We first tested whether family meals, family conflict, and peer
conflict uniquely predict positive and negative emotions. As

Table 1
Descriptive Statistics for Study Constructs

Study
constructs

Full sample Boys Girls Black Asian Hispanic Other White

M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD

Family meal 0.61 (0.49) 0.62 (0.48)1 0.60 (0.49)1 0.35 (0.48)A 0.74 (0.44)B 0.60 (0.49)C 0.54 (0.50)C 0.59 (0.49)C

Family conflict 0.14 (0.20) 0.13 (0.20)1 0.14 (0.21)1 0.13 (0.19)A,B 0.14 (0.19)A,B 0.10 (0.22)A 0.16 (0.22)B 0.14 (0.21)A,B

Peer conflict 0.04 (0.10) 0.03 (0.08)1 0.04 (0.11)2 0.07 (0.13)A 0.03 (0.07)B 0.06 (0.17)A,C 0.05 (0.10)C,D 0.04 (0.09)D

Happiness 3.25 (1.08) 3.23 (1.07)1 3.25 (1.09)1 3.07 (1.25)A,D 3.08 (0.99)A 3.35 (1.08)B,C 3.27 (1.19)C,D 3.40 (1.06)C

Distress 1.65 (0.79) 1.54 (0.65)1 1.73 (0.87)2 1.74 (0.85)A 1.60 (0.75)B 1.45 (0.99)A,B 1.68 (0.92)A,B 1.67 (0.78)A,B

Burnout 2.09 (1.05) 1.96 (0.95)1 2.19 (1.11)2 2.33 (1.12)A 1.90 (0.98)B 1.92 (0.99)B 2.16 (1.06)A 2.20 (1.07)A

Role fulfillment 4.87 (1.36) 4.80 (1.35)1 4.92 (1.36)2 5.01 (1.56)A 4.56 (1.22)B 4.92 (1.48)A 5.11 (1.34)A 5.02 (1.35)A

Note. For sex, means with the same number are not significantly different at the p � .05 level. For race, means with the same letter are not significantly
different.

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2113FAMILY MEALS, CONFLICT, AND EMOTIONS

shown in Model 1 of Table 2, on days that adolescents ate a meal
with the family, they reported significantly greater happiness and
role fulfillment (ps �.001), and less distress and burnout (p � .005
and p � .010, respectively). Conversely, on days that adolescents
experienced greater family conflict, they reported significantly less
happiness and role fulfillment (p � .001 and p � .001), and more
distress and burnout (p � .001 and p � .030). On days that
adolescents experienced greater peer conflict, they reported sig-
nificantly less happiness (p � .001) and more burnout and distress
(ps �.001).

Family Meals Buffer the Associations Between Family
Conflict and Negative Emotions

Our next model tested whether family meals moderates the
associations between family and peer conflict and emotions. For
family conflict, as shown in Model 2 of Table 2, family meals
significantly interacted with family conflict to predict happiness
(p � .003), burnout (p � .010), role fulfilment (p � .000), and
distress (p � .030). As shown in Figures 1 and 2, family conflict
was associated with lower levels of happiness and higher levels of
burnout only on days when adolescents did not eat a family meal.
On days when adolescents ate a family meal, family conflict was
not associated with happiness or burnout. Similarly, as shown in
Figures 3 and 4, family conflict was associated with lower role
fulfillment and higher levels of distress, particularly on days that
there was no family meal. Together, these findings suggest that
family meals buffer the daily emotional toll of experiencing family
conflict.

In addition, family meals significantly interacted with peer
conflict to predict role fulfilment (p � .045). As shown in Figure
5, peer conflict was associated with marginally lower levels of role
fulfillment only on days when adolescents did not eat a family
meal. On days when adolescents ate a family meal, peer conflict
was not associated with role fulfillment. There were no other
significant associations between family meals, peer conflict, and
emotions (ps � .050�.832).

Sensitivity Analyses

Bonferroni correction. As follow up, we conducted Bonfer-
roni correction for four analyses (four emotion outcomes). Results
all retained significance at the p � .013 level except …