(240)-343-2585

Respond to at least two posts of your classmates, with at least one cited source each and a minimum of 150 words per response in APA format. Show points on why. I have attached both peer post and the required reading where the information was taken from. 

Required reading:

ATP 4-93, Sustainment Brigade, April 2016, pp. 1-1 to 1-17 (17 pages)

 FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. 

U.S Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) provides air, land and sea transportation for the Department of Defense.  U.S. Transportation command is a critical aspect in the National Security Starageidy as it facilitates the mobility of all military equipment across all COCOMS (Department of Defense, 2017).  The main missions of TRANSCOM include air, sea land transportation, management of global patient movement, management of DTS, joint sourcing of contracted mobility assets and more.  USTRANSCOM, in short, moves the force and enables the global reach that is critical to the Department of Defense.

Defense Support of Civil Authorities or DSCA is a collaboration of efforts that often include DOD civilians, contractors and all components of the DOD to support local municipalities in incidents such as domestic responsibilities, law enforcement support and other domestic actions (Department of Defense, 2017).  DSCA, while simplistic in concept bridges multiple authorities and involves a complicated command structure involving civilian leadership.  The complicated nature of civilian-military interaction coupled with a non-standard command structure lends DSCS mission to be challenging in nature.

There are several challenges that the U.S. Transportation Command may face when supporting a DSCA mission.  DSCA missions are typically short notice.  TRANSCOM must react quickly to fulfill the mobilization requirements in a timely manner.  Additionally, during reception, staging, onward-movement and integration (RSOI) U.S. Transportation Command’s subordinate elements must be able to rapidly flex to the ever-changing environment that is often present in DSCA missions.  Examples are the moving equipment as the need arises due to the operational environment in a natural disaster or civil disturbance.  Funding for U.S. Transportation Command is also complicated during Defense Support of Civil Authority missions.  Because funding crossed titles of authority (Department of Defense, 2017) it can be difficult to move in the rapid manner.  There are systems such as a Declaration of Emergency that local municipalities can utilize to help expedite funding but it is never as easy as what is viewed as a “tradition” mission.  Lastly, required logistical support is often difficult as well due to the nature of DSCA missions.

While there are challenges faced by TRANSCOM during the RSOI phase of operations in a DSCA mission a well-educated staff aided by a SGM can leverage the required assets to ensure the mission is accomplished.

 

 

References

Department of Defense. (2017). The Defense Transportation System (JP 4-01). https://sgm-a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/SGM-A_SMC_DL_AY21-22_PH2_MASTER/jp4_01_2%20Sealift.pdf

Department of Defense. (2017) Joint Operations (JP 3-0). https://sgm-a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/SGM-A_SMC_DL_AY21-22_PH2_MASTER/JP%203-0.pdf

United States Transport Command Challenges

            Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration (RSOI) is an involved process responsible for interpreting Future Deployment Operations. Most nations could not stabilize and gain effective control over the process. The Military perceives RSOI as transforming the arrivals of individuals and equipment into forces that can effectively realize the operational requirements. This paper outlines the United States Transport Command (USTRANCOM) challenges during RSOI under the Defense Support of Civil Authorities. Furthermore, this paper provides possible solutions to avoiding the challenges. United States Transport Command has faced the challenge in Public Affairs, Securing the Airports, the Effectiveness of the Crew in management of Safety Airlifts, and the stability as far as absorbing the dangers of terrorism.

Contractor Management

            Contractor management is a challenge that affects the RSOI process, and the United States Command needs to be sensitive to the effective implementation of a safety plan. Contractor movement involves integrating and overseeing the personnel and all the equipment associated with the process. The equipment applies to the personals and strictly dispenses the military operations. The movement in the contract involves planning, deployment, or redeployment, in theater management and protection of the force. Transport Command discharges the duty in compliance with the need to work with Defense Security Cooperation Agency and support the Civil Authority (Richelson, 2018). Integrating the three interrelated operational contracts in support of the functions is challenging for Transco.

 

            Prevalence of potential threats to the safety and peace of the citizens in the United States calls for attention from the relevant authorities. Armed forces designed the Joint Operations Doctrine to serve the needs of the Citizens as far as the transit of goods, services, and people. The joint operations, founded on war-fighting philosophies and the experience-derived theory. USTRANSCOM’s efforts need to lean on the principle of war and the fundamentals of joint warfare. The doctrine has prescribed functionalism and essentialism of the process in the Doctrine for the Army in the United States. They may associate the joint effort as the solution source with a revolutionary idea for going through the RSOI process. The practical implementation will translate to the shift in the effective rates in the RSOI process.

The capacity of the Joint Forces to work cohesively is a key to an operational environment. The threats are explicit within the limits of the land transport, but both air and sea lifts share the risk involved. Challenges in explanation execution planning, essential planning for the Cargo and related concepts, and protection through operations security accompany interference. In most incidences, the Automatic Planning Tools are. We should commit the United States Transport Command to employ Sealift, including support for communications. The acquisition vessel and the Activation process remain well defined through the mission statements and structure of Command for some of the sensitive activities (Isreal, 2019). The situation or the prevalent fact does not undermine the efforts of the United States Transport Command but highlights some areas where the body has not been yielding the best.

 

 

Proactive Prevention of the Challenge

            Information is the best source of power, and the awareness of the shortcomings enables Transco to be on its toes in assuring safety throughout the RSOI process. The success of the proactive prevention approach to the challenge calls for the improvement of joint operations in Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration. For example, the Marine Transport, the Sealift transport structure, should exist in a four-process structure. First, the Transco should determine the cargo and sustainment requirements in the transit. The requirements need to exist in the Unit of Measure.

            A preventive approach is the Best Course of action regarding security issues. Initial results may be good, but the process is corrupt, and in most incidences, the flawed process ruins the outcome. Transport Command should keep the Planning and Execution Systems updated. Relevant agencies need to cooperate in developing the infrastructure and supporting the development projects. The projects will yield the best through highlighting the relevance of addressing the support of the host nation during the time of peace. The endeavor should strive for established common words for the RSOI operations (Archambault, 2019). Theatre Level organizations for RSOI should also endure planning for the execution of the RSOI operations. Communication lines should thrive to ensure effective delivery of services. The joint operations are healthy in weighing the potential and predicting the capabilities of the United States Military.

 

 

 

References

Richelson, J. T. (2018). The US intelligence community. Routledge.

Isreal, E. M. (2019). Joint Reception Staging Onward Movement and Integration (JRSOI): The Commanders Role in Integration. US Army Command and General Staff College.

Archambault, M. (2019). Putting the Fight Back in the Staff. Military Review99.

Christie, G. A. (1967). Comparative histochemical studies on implantation and placentation. University of Glasgow (United Kingdom).

Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2018). Joint Operations (JP 3-0). Retrieved from

https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp3_20180622.pdf

FM 1-01

Generating Force Support for Operations

April 2008

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine

Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

FM 1-01

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

i

Field Manual
No. 1-01

Headquarters
Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 2 April 2008

Generating Force Support for Operations

Contents
Page

PREFACE ……………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………….v
Chapter 1 THE ARMY’S GENERATING FORCE……………………………………………………… 1-1

The Army ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-1
Effective Capabilities ……………………………………………………………………………… 1-5

Chapter 2 THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ……………………………………………………. 2-1
Significant Societal Trends ……………………………………………………………………… 2-1
Operational Variables …………………………………………………………………………….. 2-2
Threats ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-5
Full Spectrum Operations: The Army’s Operational Concept ………………………. 2-5
Unified Action ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2-6
Joint Interdependence ……………………………………………………………………………. 2-7
ARFORGEN …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-7

Chapter 3 EMPLOYING THE GENERATING FORCE ………………………………………………. 3-1
Categories of Support ……………………………………………………………………………. 3-1
Organization of Generating Force Capabilities ………………………………………….. 3-1
Supporting the Joint Campaign ……………………………………………………………….. 3-2
Planning Support for Operations ……………………………………………………………… 3-7
Providing Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………….. 3-8
Accessing Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………… 3-9

Chapter 4 ADAPTING TO THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT …………………………….. 4-1
Understanding the Operational Environment …………………………………………….. 4-1
Support to Rapid Adaptation …………………………………………………………………… 4-8
Generating Capabilities for Operations …………………………………………………… 4-11

Chapter 5 ENABLING STRATEGIC REACH …………………………………………………………… 5-1
Support to Force Projection…………………………………………………………………….. 5-1
Sustaining Deployed Forces …………………………………………………………………… 5-4
Building and Sustaining Operational Networks ………………………………………… 5-10

Contents

ii FM 1-01 2 April 2008

Chapter 6 DEVELOPING MULTINATIONAL PARTNER CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY 6-1
Stability Operations ………………………………………………………………………………… 6-1
Support for Security Force Assistance ……………………………………………………… 6-2
Support for Infrastructure Development……………………………………………………..6-6

Appendix ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR CAPABILITIES FOR OPERATIONAL
SUPPORT……………………………………………………………………………………………. A-1

GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………… Glossary-1
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………. References-1
INDEX …………………………………………………………………………………………… Index-1

Figures

Figure 1-1. Title 10 functions ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1-2
Figure 1-2. Representative list of Army generating force organizations………………………….. 1-3
Figure 6-1. Representative force integration capabilities ……………………………………………… 6-5

2 April 2008 FM 1-01 iii

Preface

This manual defines the Army’s generating force and establishes as doctrine the employment of its capabilities
in support of ongoing joint and multinational operations and deployed forces. It describes how operating forces
can access and employ generating force capabilities in support of ongoing operations. It incorporates lessons
learned from recent and ongoing operations, including Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, the
War on Terrorism, the response to Hurricane Katrina, and others. This information allows operational Army
forces to understand generating force capabilities and employ these capabilities successfully in support of
ongoing operations. It enables generating force organizations to ready these capabilities. This manual describes
how the joint force can access and employ generating force capabilities in support of operations.

The generating force consists of Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the
operational Army. The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), for example, is part
of the generating force. Activities the generating force conducts in support of readiness, Army force generation
(ARFORGEN), and the routine performance of functions specified and implied in Title 10 and other applicable
legislation are addressed in Army regulations and Department of the Army pamphlets and are not addressed
here. As a consequence of its performance of functions specified and implied by law, the generating force also
possesses operationally useful capabilities for employment by or in direct support of joint force commanders.
This manual’s introduction elaborates the manual’s purpose and explains the necessity of employing generating
force capabilities in the conduct of operations. It introduces the three principal categories of generating force
support to ongoing operations: adapting to the operational environment, enabling strategic reach, and
developing multinational partner capability and capacity.

• Chapter 1 defines the generating force and its relationship to the operational Army and the joint
force. It describes the three categories of capabilities.

• Chapter 2 describes the operational environment and the role of landpower within it. It briefly
describes where the generating force fits within the operational environment.

• Chapter 3 describes the employment of the generating force for ongoing operations. This
includes how operating forces access generating force capabilities and the employment of those
capabilities in a joint campaign.

• Chapter 4 describes how the generating force enables adaptation to the operational environment.
It describes how generating force capabilities contribute to attaining situational understanding
and adapting Army operational capabilities to a specific context.

• Chapter 5 describes how the generating force enables strategic reach. It describes the generating
force’s role in projecting power and sustaining it once deployed. It describes the generating
force’s role in developing and maintaining the network that connects Soldiers, policy makers,
and support personnel. It concludes by describing the generating force’s role in supporting
reconstruction.

• Chapter 6 discusses how the generating force supports the development of multinational partner
capability and capacity through participation in security and reconstruction.

• The appendix lists the principal generating force organizations and their capabilities for
supporting operations.

This manual applies to Army headquarters at the brigade echelon and above. It is of primary interest to the
commanders and staffs of theater armies, corps, and divisions and the leaders of Army commands, direct
reporting units, and Headquarters, Department of the Army. It applies to all Army leaders, especially planners,
trainers, educators, force designers, materiel developers, and doctrine developers.

This manual applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States,
and the United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.

Preface

iv FM 1-01 2 April 2008

TRADOC is the proponent for this manual. The U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC) is the
preparing agency. Send written comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to
Publications and Blank Forms) to Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center (Forward), Room 1200, 2530
Crystal Drive, Arlington, Virginia 22202. Send electronic comments to arcic.army.mil/fm101form.asp.

2 April 2008 FM 1-01 v

Introduction

The Army’s primary mission is to provide capabilities for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat
incident to operations on land. The Army most effectively executes a particular mission when it draws on
the collective capability of the entire force. The Army provides its capabilities from two functionally
discrete but organizationally integrated entities known as the operational Army and the generating force.
Most of the Army’s operational capability resides in the modular units and headquarters of the operational
Army, which the generating force generates and sustains. Besides generating and sustaining the operational
Army, the generating force can provide operational capabilities for employment by or in support of joint
force commanders.

Today’s operational environment is complex, interconnected, and dynamic. It calls for the use of specific
operational capabilities intrinsic to the generating force’s performance of functions specified and implied
by law. This environment comprises the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the
employment of capabilities and bear on the commander’s decisions. It includes physical areas and factors
and the information domain. It also includes the adversary, friendly, and neutral systems relevant to a
specific joint operation. Many U.S. enemies and adversaries are highly adaptive, often combining their
ability to adapt with asymmetric tactics and capabilities. This operational environment demands
increasingly sophisticated capabilities for rapid analysis of and rapid adaptation to the operational area, or
for tailoring the operational force for a specific context.

Additionally, defeating adaptive enemies requires the establishment or restoration of stable states and
effective institutions, especially security forces. The generating force’s ability to develop and sustain potent
landpower capabilities supports security forces and governmental institutions. It also contributes to
developing, maintaining, and managing infrastructure. Moreover, the modern information environment and
improved transportation capabilities allow the effective application of capabilities from outside a
combatant commander’s area of responsibility. Over the course of the War on Terrorism, generating force
organizations have improvised and provided many capabilities in this vein.

This manual institutionalizes the generating force role in providing capabilities to operating forces.
Generating force support to ongoing operations falls into three broad categories:

• Adapting to the operational environment is the ability to adapt U.S. capabilities, or generate new
ones, to meet the requirements of a rapidly and constantly evolving operational environment.

• Enabling strategic reach is the contribution of the generating force to increasing the distance
and duration over which the nation can project power.

• Developing multinational partner capability and capacity is the generating force’s support of
stability operations by providing capabilities to assist security forces and conduct reconstruction.

Operating force commanders and planners use these three categories to guide their employment of
generating force capabilities. Generating force leaders use these categories to guide in developing
capabilities for operational employment.

This manual describes the major, existing capabilities of the generating force to support ongoing
operations. Generating force leaders further consider the inherent operational capabilities of their
organizations and adapt those capabilities in support of joint force commanders. This manual does not
provide an exhaustive list of operationally relevant generating force capabilities.

As with any military mission, the formal processes by which capabilities are allocated, and the formal
relationships under which they operate, are less important than the participants’ understanding of the
shared mission and their will to accomplish it. The operational Army and the generating force must remain
mutually aware of the Army’s collective capabilities and operational needs. They must work together to
provide optimum capabilities to joint force commanders.

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2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-1

Chapter 1

The Army’s Generating Force

The Army is divided into two functionally discrete but organizationally integrated
entities. These are known as the operational Army and the generating force. The
operational Army consists primarily of units whose primary purpose is to conduct or
support full spectrum operations. The generating force is that part of the Army whose
primary purpose is generating and sustaining operational Army units by performing
functions specified and implied by law. As a consequence of performing those
functions, the generating force also has capabilities that are useful in supporting
operations in the current operational environment. This chapter defines and describes
the Army’s generating force and its relationship to the operational Army.

THE ARMY
1-1. The Army derives its existence and mission from the Constitution of the United States and from
legislation, principally Title 10 of the U.S. Code. FM 1 thoroughly describes the origins, organization, and
mission of the Army. In brief, according to the U.S. Code, the Army’s primary mission is to provide
capabilities to conduct prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land. The Army is
responsible for the preparation of land forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war, except as
otherwise assigned. In accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, it is also responsible for the
expansion of the peacetime components of the Army to meet the needs of war.

1-2. The Army calls these capabilities landpower. Landpower is the ability—by threat, force, or
occupation—to promptly gain, sustain, and exploit control over land, resources, and people (FM 3-0).

1-3. To provide landpower capabilities, the Army has two functionally discrete but organizationally
integrated entities known as the operational Army and the generating force. The operational Army provides
the bulk of Army capabilities to the joint force for the conduct of full spectrum operations. The generating
force generates and sustains the operational Army and also provides some specific landpower capabilities
to the joint force.

1-4. An Army organization’s primary purpose distinguishes it as part of the operational Army or the
generating force. Regardless of their purpose or assignment of resources, Army organizations provide the
capabilities that meet the operational need.

THE OPERATIONAL ARMY
1-5. The operational Army consists primarily of the Army Modular Force, which is trained and organized
to fight as part of the joint force. Modular organizations can be quickly assembled into strategically
responsive force packages able to move rapidly wherever needed. They can quickly and seamlessly
transition among types of operations. Modular organizations provide the bulk of forces needed for
sustained land operations. In addition to conventional forces, the Army continues to provide the majority of
special operations force capabilities in support of the U.S. Special Operations Command’s global mission.

1-6. By law, operational Army units are typically assigned to combatant commanders. The Army
normally executes its responsibilities to organize, train, and equip operational Army units through Army
Service component commands (ASCCs).

1-7. This manual makes frequent reference to operating forces, defined as those forces whose primary
missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof (JP 1-02). In this manual,

Chapter 1

1-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

the term operating forces broadly connotes joint capabilities employed in the conduct of full spectrum
operations. The generating force supports operating forces from all services in the conduct of joint
operations.

THE GENERATING FORCE
1-8. The primary mission of the generating force is to generate and sustain operational Army capabilities.
This mission and the generating force’s capabilities to execute it are more fully described in the Army War
College publication, How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. The generating force also
possesses operationally useful capabilities. However, the Army does not organize the generating force into
standing organizations with a primary focus on specific operations. Rather, when generating force
capabilities perform specific functions or missions in support of and at the direction of joint force
commanders, it is for a limited period of time. Upon completion of the mission, the elements and assets of
those generating force capabilities revert to their original function.

1-9. All elements of the Army, whether generating force or operational Army, perform functions
specified by law (figure 1-1). The practical distinction is that the execution of these functions and others
implied by law constitutes the primary purpose of generating force organizations. Title 10 is not the only
statute that governs the generating force, nor is the list of functions in figure 1-1 exhaustive.

Figure 1-1. Title 10 functions

1-10. The current security environment has led to the emergence of certain operational missions requiring
employment of generating force capabilities. Missions suitable for generating force capabilities include—

The development of multinational partners’ security forces.
The repair, development, and management of infrastructure in support of stability operations.
The adaptation of operating forces across the domains of doctrine, organization, training,

materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF).

The generating force often can perform these types of missions with greater effectiveness and efficiency
than ad hoc operational Army organizations. Put another way, the generating force can perform its Title 10
functions either in generating and sustaining the operational Army or for supporting ongoing operations.
However, in each case the generating force provides its capabilities under a different set of conditions. This
manual describes the subsets of generating force capabilities to support ongoing operations.

1-11. The generating force includes Army commands and direct reporting units. Figure 1-2 lists
representative organizations from the generating force. Unlike operational Army units, which are usually
assigned to combatant commanders, organizations within the generating force typically are assigned to the
Department of the Army and report to the Secretary of the Army.

The Army’s Generating Force

2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-3

Figure 1-2. Representative list of Army generating force organizations

1-12. Oversight of generating forces’ training and readiness, especially to perform operational tasks, is the
direct responsibility of Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA). The Army G-3/5/7 is the HQDA
element with primary responsibility for the oversight of generating force capabilities to support operations.

1-13. The generating force lacks a standing reserve of uncommitted resources for specific operational
support. As previously stated, the generating force’s primary mission—generating and sustaining the
operational Army—determines its overall capabilities and capacity. Diverting generating force elements to
participate in ongoing operations risks impairing the generating force’s capability to perform its primary
mission. Generating force leaders mitigate that risk by mobilizing additional resources to backfill resources
diverted to ongoing operations, but this takes time. For that reason, Army senior leadership carefully
considers the effects of diverting generating force resources for employment in ongoing operations.

CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT FOR OPERATIONS
1-14. Generating force support for full spectrum operations falls into three broad categories:

Adapting to the operational environment.
Enabling strategic reach.
Developing multinational partner capability and capacity.

These categories describe the application of existing capabilities in today’s operational environment.

1-15. Operational planners refer to these categories when considering, requesting, and employing
generating force capabilities for operational support. Generating force leaders use them as organizational
guidelines to prepare their forces to support operations.

ADAPTING TO THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
1-16. Adapting to the operational environment has two parts. The first is the ability to make necessary
changes to existing capabilities. The second is the ability to generate new capabilities. Operational
requirements change rapidly; therefore, capabilities must adapt rapidly.

1-17. The operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that
affect the employment of capabilities and bear on decisions of the commander (see chapter 2). It includes
physical areas, the information environment, and the adversary, friendly, and neutral systems relevant to an
operation. The variables of the operational environment compose an interactively complex system of
systems. A change in any part of the system, such as the infrastructure; popular beliefs and perceptions; or
enemy tactics, techniques, and procedures changes the overall dynamic.

1-18. The generating force provides its robust analytical capabilities to operating forces, enabling them to
understand and respond to the operational environment. These capabilities include assessing physical
terrain and trends in land warfare and general capabilities for operations research and systems analysis. The

Chapter 1

1-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

resulting shared understanding informs ongoing efforts to adapt and continue generating required
capabilities.

1-19. Operating forces are aware of and work within an environment influenced by the efforts of
interagency, multinational, and nongovernmental partners. In civil support operations, military forces
support non-Department of Defense (DOD) agencies. Generating force capabilities help operating forces
integrate joint, interagency, and multinational partnerships to achieve mission objectives.

1-20. The generating force enables adaptation to the operational environment by remaining responsive to
current operations and anticipating future needs. It tailors preparations to the specific environment in which
Army forces will operate. This adaptation is anticipatory rather than reactive. It focuses on the entire
operational environment, not just the enemy. Additionally, operating forces and the generating force work
together to adapt to the operational environment. By understanding the operational environment’s
dynamics before and more thoroughly than adversaries, U.S. forces gain and maintain an advantage. Army
forces must be able to react rapidly and effectively to changes in adversary, friendly, and neutral systems.

ENABLING STRATEGIC REACH
1-21. Strategic reach is the distance and duration across which the nation can project power (see FM 3-0).
Strategic reach refers to the capability to operate against complex, adaptive threats operating anywhere in
the world. Strategic reach is multifaceted, encompassing joint military capabilities (air, land, maritime,
space, and special operations) and other instruments of national power. The generating force enables
strategic reach by supporting force projection, sustaining operating forces, and building and sustaining
operational networks.

1-22. Supporting force projection is not a new mission for the generating force. However, an increasingly
interconnected global environment now allows forces to be projected directly into operations. The time and
resources committed to the deployment process must be minimized. For these reasons, the generating force
integrates its support of force projection closely with operational plans and ongoing operations. Moreover,
protracted conflict increases the likelihood of redeployment.

1-23. Sustainment includes the logistic, personnel services, and health service support required to maintain
and prolong operations until successful mission accomplishment. Sustainment impacts strategic reach more
than any other factor. Generating force sustainment support allows the generation, projection, and
employment of personnel, materiel, and equipment in support of the campaign plan or operation.
Historically, the generating force has sustained operating forces indirectly, with operational Army
sustainment organizations as an intermediary. Today, the generating force provides its sustainment
capabilities directly to operating forces.

1-24. The Global Information Grid (GIG), of which the Army’s LandWarNet is a part, enables operating
forces to have access to information and personnel anywhere in the world. Through the GIG’s worldwide
communications systems, any element of a deployed force can communicate with another. The generating
force plays the key role in developing, protecting, and maintaining that network. The generating force
ensures that the right information reaches the right person at the right time.

DEVELOPING MULTINATIONAL PARTNER CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY
1-25. The generating force supports the development of multinational partner capability and capacity,
primarily through the application of force management, acquisition, and sustainment capabilities. It
supports the provision of essential services and economic and infrastructure development. Force
management includes force development and force integration.

1-26. In the long run, efforts to improve multinational partner capability and capacity eventually reduce the
demands for U.S. forces and resources. However, this requires a significant initial investment of manpower
and resources. In the short run, the attainment of U.S. objectives in a given conflict may depend on the
successful development of host-nation forces more than on any other factor. Generating force capabilities
support the provision of essential services and economic and infrastructure development. The generating

The Army’s Generating Force

2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-5

force also facilitates operating forces’ access to other capabilities for these tasks, especially those relating
to economic development and governance.

1-27. These generating force capabilities extend beyond the development of partner armies. With
appropriate enabling legislation, Army generating force capabilities can be employed to support the large
scale assistance of security forces and administrative organizations.

EFFECTIVE CAPABILITIES
1-28. The primary mission of generating force organizations is the long-term generation and sustainment
of operational Army capabilities. While the generating force retains that mission, it now embraces
participation in ongoing operations when required. Similarly, operating force planners now take full
advantage of generating force capabilities. Those capabilities are assembled, exercised, and employed on a
regular basis to ensure they effectively support operations when required.

1-29. As with any military capability, the formal designations of organizations and capabilities as
operational Army or generating force are less important than the Soldiers’ understanding of the shared
mission and their will to accomplish it. All participants in the process of developing, maintaining, and
allocating Army capabilities for operations, whether they are part of the operational Army or generating
force, understand that Army capabilities are most effective when they …

ATP 4-93
11 April 2016

Sustainment Brigade

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

This publication supersedes ATP 4-93 dated 9 August 2013.

Headquarters Department of the Army

APRIL 2016

This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online
(https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html).
To receive publishing updates, please subscribe at

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*ATP 4-93

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes ATP 4-93 dated 9 August 2013.

i

Army Techniques Publication

No. 4-93

Headquarters

Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 11 April 2016

Sustainment Brigade

Contents

Page

PREFACE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………… iv

Chapter 1 SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE CAPABILITIES, FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATION
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-1
Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-1
Role and Functions ………………………………………………………………………………… 1-2
Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-2
Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-9
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-16

Chapter 2 SPECIAL TROOPS BATTALION CAPABILITIES AND ORGANIZATION …… 2-1
Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-1
Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-1
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-6

Chapter 3 COMBAT SUSTAINMENT SUPPORT BATTALION CAPABILITIES AND
ORGANIZATION …………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-2
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-8

Chapter 4 MISSION COMMAND ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-1
Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-1
Command Post Cells and Staff Elements …………………………………………………. 4-4
Sustainment Brigade Integrating Processes and Continuing Activities ……….. 4-10
Operations Process ……………………………………………………………………………… 4-14
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-19

Chapter 5 THE EMPLOYED SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE ………………………………………….. 5-1
Joint Operations ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1
Theater Opening ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-2

Contents

ii ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

Support To Decisive Action ……………………………………………………………………… 5-3
Theater Closing ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-14
Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-16

Appendix A TEAMS SUPPORTING RETROGRADE OF MATERIEL …………………………… A-1

GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………… Glossary-1

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………. References-1

INDEX …………………………………………………………………………………………… Index-1

Figures

Figure 1-1. Sustainment brigade staff organization ……………………………………………………… 1-9

Figure 1-2. Sustainment brigade support operations ………………………………………………….. 1-13

Figure 2-1. Notional special troops battalion……………………………………………………………….. 2-2

Figure 3-1. Examples of combat sustainment support battalion support relationships ……… 3-2

Figure 3-2. Combat sustainment support battalion headquarters and staff ……………………… 3-3

Figure 3-3. Notional combat sustainment support battalion. …………………………………………. 3-7

Figure 4-1. Example sustainment brigade command post ……………………………………………. 4-5

Figure 4-2. Sustainment brigade integrating cells ……………………………………………………….. 4-8

Figure 4-3. Example combat sustainment support battalion command post ……………………. 4-9

Figure 4-4. Logistics status reporting flow ………………………………………………………………… 4-13

Figure 5-1. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater opening
tasks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-2

Figure 5-2. Sustainment brigade emplacement …………………………………………………………… 5-6

Figure 5-3. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting sustainment
operations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-7

Figure 5-4. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater
distribution operations ……………………………………………………………………………. 5-8

Figure 5-5. Notional support operations in a developed joint operations area …………………. 5-9

Figure 5-6. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater closing
tasks ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-15

Tables

Introductory table-1. New term ……………………………………………………………………………………… v

11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 iii

Preface

ATP 4-93 provides doctrine describing the capabilities, organization and operations of the sustainment brigade

and its subordinate units. Subordinate units are task organized to the sustainment brigade depending on

operational and mission variables. This publication also describes sustainment brigade command and support

relationships with tactical units and strategic partners.

The principal audience for ATP 4-93 is all members of the profession of arms. Commanders and staffs of Army

headquarters serving as joint task force or multinational headquarters should also refer to applicable joint or

multinational doctrine concerning the range of military operations and joint or multinational forces. Trainers and

educators throughout the Army will also use this publication.

Commanders, staffs and subordinates ensure that their decisions and actions comply with applicable United

States, international, and in some cases host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure that

their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement. (See FM 27-10.)

ATP 4-93 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the

glossary and the text. Terms for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent publication (the authority) are italicized in the

text and are marked with an asterisk (*) in the glossary. Terms and definitions for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent

publication are boldfaced in the text. For other definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number

of the proponent publication follows the definition.

ATP 4-93 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States and

United States Army Reserve unless otherwise noted.

The proponent of ATP 4-93 is the United States Army Combined Arms Support Command. The preparing agency

is the G-3/5/7 Doctrine Division, USACASCOM. Send comments and recommendations on a DA Form 2028

(Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Commander, United States Army Combined Arms

Support Command, ATTN: ATCL-TDID (ATP 4-93), 2221 Adams Ave, Bldg 5020, Fort Lee, VA, 23801-1809;

or submit an electronic DA Form 2028 by e-mail to: [email protected] In

addition to submission of DA Form 2028, provide same comments and recommendations in MilWiki for rapid

dissemination to doctrine authors and for universal review at https://www.milsuite.mil.

iv ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

Introduction

ATP 4-93 describes the Army sustainment brigade characteristics, capabilities, organizations and operational

processes. ATP 4-93 is a revision of ATP 4-93, Sustainment Brigade, last published in 2013. It is written for

commanders, staffs and Soldiers at all levels, leaders and instructors at military institutions, student and doctrine

and training developers. It provides relevant information for an Army sustainment brigade in support of decisive

action tasks.

This publication refines the description of the sustainment brigade headquarters, combat sustainment support

battalion and the special troops battalion. New topics include: command and support relationships, mission

command, command post activities, and sustainment brigade notional task organizations. It reflects the

experiences and knowledge gained from current operations. This ATP also captures organization changes that

impact the capability of the unit to accomplish its mission. Newly created and updated graphics reflect

sustainment brigade current staff organizations and command post cells.

The ATP explains how a sustainment brigade operates to sustain Army forces as part of Army unified land

operations. Unified land operations describe how the Army operates through simultaneous offensive, defensive,

and stability or defense support of civil authorities’ tasks.

The sustainment brigade’s garrison command relationships and activities performed in support of home station

are intended to maximize mission command effectiveness. The attachment of sustainment brigades to a division

at home station does not change their doctrinal mission or war time requirements. Sustainment brigade

headquarters, combat sustainment support battalion headquarters and their garrison subordinate units remain

available for global deployment requirements. Deployed sustainment brigades are task organized to support Army

forces in support of decisive action tasks. The sustainment brigade provides support and services to enable

operational reach, ensure freedom of action, and prolonged endurance, to Army forces conducting decisive action

tasks. The content of ATP 4-93 is consistent with Army doctrine and nested with joint logistics.

The ATP is organized to describe the sustainment brigade capabilities, organization and employed missions. ATP

4-93 has five chapters and one appendix:

Chapter 1 describes the sustainment brigade’s capabilities, functions, and organization. The sustainment brigade

is a multifunctional headquarters integrating and employing all assigned and attached units while planning and

synchronizing sustainment operations. This chapter includes the sustainment brigade’s command and support

relationships. Support operations is introduced as a new term and definition in this chapter.

Chapter 2 describes the special troops battalion capabilities and organization. It is the sustainment brigade’s only

organic unit. The special troops battalion is task organized with companies and detachments which provide

capabilities from across the warfighting functions.

Chapter 3 describes the combat sustainment support battalion capabilities, functions, and organization. The

combat sustainment support battalion conducts logistics operations in support of decisive action. This chapter

includes a discussion of command and support relationships and a graphic illustrating examples of combat

sustainment support battalion support relationships.

Chapter 4 describes how the sustainment brigade commander and staff apply mission command doctrine. It

describes how commanders organize the staff into functional and integrating cells to perform command post

functions and includes recommendations of which staff members perform specific functional cell tasks. This

chapter also offers considerations for establishing integrating cells; current operations, future operations and

plans.

Chapter 5 describes the missions an employed sustainment brigade performs. It depicts notional task organized

sustainment brigades conducting tasks supporting theater opening, sustainment, theater distribution and theater

closing. This chapter includes recently revised materiel management tasks and an expanded theater closing

discussion.

Introduction

11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 v

Appendix A identifies recommended teams to conduct retrograde of materiel tasks and provides references to

enable a unit to plan for and execute a retrograde of materiel mission. The appendix lists examples of task

organized teams performing logistics related theater closing tasks. The teams enable base closure and transfer,

recovery, redistribution, retrograde, and disposal of materiel.

Based on current doctrinal changes, a term for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent has been added. The glossary

contains acronyms and defined terms. See introductory table-1 for new Army terms.

Introductory table-1. New term

Term Remarks

support operations New Term and Definition

This page intentionally left blank.

11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-1

Chapter 1

Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and
Organization

The sustainment brigade is a flexible headquarters that is task organized to support

unified land operations and command subordinate sustainment organizations. It is task

organized with a combination of combat sustainment support battalions and functional

logistics battalions. This chapter describes the capabilities, relationships and

organization of the sustainment brigade headquarters.

CAPABILITIES

1-1. The sustainment brigade is a multifunctional headquarters integrating and employing all assigned and
attached units while planning and synchronizing sustainment operations. It is the Army’s primary brigade

level sustainment headquarters. The sustainment brigade supports Army forces at the tactical and operational

levels, providing support to brigade combat teams (BCTs), multifunctional and functional support brigades,

deployable, self-contained division and corps headquarters, and other units operating in its assigned support

area. Depending upon operational and mission variables, the sustainment brigade commands between three

and seven battalions. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned or attached to a sustainment command. The

sustainment brigade and its attached units will normally have a general support relationship with supported

organizations.

1-2. The sustainment brigade is expeditionary, inter-operable and agile. These characteristics describe the
attributes that the organization requires to be effective. The sustainment brigade is expeditionary as it can

deploy task organized forces on short notice to austere locations and conduct sustainment operations

immediately upon arrival. The sustainment brigade is inter-operable as it can task organize rapidly and

integrate joint, inter-organizational and multinational requirements and capabilities. The sustainment brigade

is agile as it can transition sustainment support across all decisive action tasks.

1-3. The sustainment brigade is task organized with units required to execute logistics and personnel
services. Logistics includes; supply, maintenance, transportation, field services, distribution, and operational

contract support. Personnel services are sustainment functions that fund and man the force. Examples of

brigade task organizations are in chapter 5.

1-4. The combat sustainment support battalion (CSSB) is the building block upon which the sustainment
brigade capabilities are developed. The CSSB is addressed in chapter 3. The organization and operations of

most functional logistics battalions are addressed in specific functional Army techniques publications.

Organizational information about functional logistics battalions is available in unit authorization documents

and from force design resources located at the Combined Arms Support Command Sustainment Unit One

Stop website.

1-5. A financial management support unit and a human resources company may be attached or assigned to
the sustainment brigade. The financial management support unit and the human resources company are

addressed in chapter 2.

1-6. The sustainment brigade headquarters is designed to operate as a single command element without the
ability to conduct split based operations. The sustainment brigade cannot create or operate a tactical command

post (CP) without accepting risk in other areas. More information about the command post is in chapter 4.

1-7. The sustainment brigade headquarters plans and conducts base security and protection against level I
threats. Level II and III threats require coordination with designated combat reaction forces. The sustainment

Chapter 1

1-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

brigade cannot be assigned an area of operations or manage terrain. More information about protection is in

chapter 5.

1-8. A task organized sustainment brigade is dependent on the following organizations:

 Sustainment brigade signal network support company for signal support.

 Area support medical company for Role 2 medical support.

ROLE AND FUNCTIONS

1-9. A role is the broad and enduring purpose for which the organization or branch is established (ADP 1-
01). An organization or branch has only one role. The role of a sustainment brigade commander and staff is

to exercise mission command for task organized sustainment brigades. Mission command is the exercise of

authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the

commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations (ADP

6-0).

1-10. The sustainment brigade executes logistics and personnel services functions associated with theater
opening, sustainment, distribution, and theater closing missions. A function is a practical grouping of tasks

and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose (ADP 1-01).

Properly task organized, a sustainment brigade could be conducting theater opening tasks, sustainment and

theater distribution tasks during the early phases of an operation or if it is the only sustainment brigade in the

joint operations area (JOA). This same sustainment brigade, with a different task organization, can transition

to conducting a theater distribution mission or sustainment mission. More information about sustainment

brigade functions supporting employed operations is in chapter 5.

RELATIONSHIPS

1-11. Commanders task organize the force to provide specific capabilities in support of mission
requirements. They task organize the force by establishing command and support relationships. These

relationships establish clear responsibilities and authorities between subordinate and supporting units. For

every operation, the sustainment brigade commander and subordinate commanders must make every effort

to ensure command and support relationships are clearly expressed in orders; their own and those of their

higher headquarters and supported organizations. Doctrine sets general guidelines; mission orders will

determine the details of the relationships. Doctrinal relationships are defined and explained in ADRP 5-0,

The Operations Process, and FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and Operations.

1-12. Sustainment brigade commanders closely evaluate the outcome they wish to achieve and then decide
which combination of command and support relationships to assign subordinate units. The relationships must

accommodate the known situation and empower subordinate leaders to respond to the unknown. Changes in

command relationships do not necessarily require changes in support relationships, especially if the nature

of the support does not change. Simple command and support relationships increase the likelihood of success.

1-13. The sustainment brigade commander also establishes informal relationships. The informal relationship
between the sustainment brigade and the division G-4 (assistant chief of staff, logistics) provides another

source of information for the sustainment brigade commander to consider when determining appropriate

command and support relationships and internal task organization. A description of the relationship between

the division G-4 and sustainment brigade support operations (SPO) is in the organization discussion later in

this chapter.

COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

1-14. Command relationships define command responsibility and authority. Army command relationships
are: organic, assigned, attached, operational control, and tactical control. Command relationships unify effort

and enable commanders to use subordinate forces with maximum flexibility. The type of command

relationship often relates to the expected longevity of the relationship between the headquarters involved and

quickly identifies the degree of support that the gaining and losing Army commanders provide. Leaders and

Soldiers must understand the different kinds of command relationships and the impact those relationships

have on providing and receiving sustainment support.

Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-3

1-15. The sustainment brigade has different command relationships depending on many factors including,
mission, priorities of support and transitioning task organization. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned

or attached to a sustainment command. The sustainment brigade’s command relationship and task

organization changes based on changing mission requirements. Subordinate battalions may have different

command relationships than the parent sustainment brigade.

1-16. The command relationship provides the authority to control unit mission. If a CSSB, or functional
logistics battalion, has a command relationship with a unit they do not also have a support relationship with

that unit. If the CSSB is attached to a sustainment brigade, the sustainment brigade has the authority to

establish priorities and impose further command or support relationships. This relationship enables the

sustainment brigade to maximize the capacity of all the subordinate CSSBs. Mission command doctrine

describes the intended relationship, not a prescribed relationship.

Army Service Component Command

1-17. An Army Service Component Command (ASCC) assigned to a geographic combatant command is
organized, manned, and equipped to perform three roles:

 Theater Army for the geographic combatant command to which it is assigned.

 Joint task force headquarters (with augmentation) for a limited contingency operation in that area

of responsibility (AOR).

 Joint force land component (with augmentation) for a limited contingency operation in that AOR.

1-18. The ASCC is the primary vehicle for Army support to joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and
multinational forces. The ASCC headquarters directs functions that include theater opening, theater

distribution, reception, staging, onward movement and integration (RSOI), joint logistics over-the-shore

operations; and sustainment and security coordination. A theater sustainment command (TSC) assigned to

the ASCC is task organized with expeditionary sustainment commands and sustainment brigades to support

mission requirements. The sustainment brigade has a command relationship with a sustainment command.

The sustainment command has a command relationship with the ASCC. See FM 3-94, Theater Army, Corps,

and Division Operations, for more information about the ASCC.

Corps

1-19. The corps headquarters is organized, trained, and equipped to serve as the ARFOR in campaigns and
major operations, with command of two or more Army divisions, together with supporting theater-level

organizations, across the range of military operations. When required, a corps may become an intermediate

tactical headquarters under the land component command, with operational control of multiple divisions

(including multinational or Marine Corps formations) or other large tactical formations. The corps

headquarters has the capability to provide the nucleus of a joint task force or joint force land component

headquarters. The corps normally has one expeditionary sustainment command (ESC) and one medical

brigade in direct support. The sustainment brigade normally has a command relationship with an

expeditionary sustainment command.

Sustainment Commands

1-20. The TSC synchronizes current and future sustainment operations for an ASCC headquarters. The TSC
deploys an expeditionary sustainment command when the TSC determines that a forward command presence

is required.

1-21. The expeditionary sustainment command is a headquarters which deploys to an area of operations
(AO) or joint operations area (JOA). The ESC provides command capabilities when multiple sustainment

brigades are employed or when the TSC determines that a forward command presence is required.

1-22. The significant difference between TSC and ESC capabilities is scale and scope. The TSC looks across
the area of responsibility and shapes sustainment operations. It sets the conditions for successful sustainment

operations. The TSC provides guidance to the strategic partners when priority conflicts exist between JOAs.

The ESC is focused on the JOA and executing the joint task force or Army forces commander’s priorities.

The ESC also manages the sustainment mission in the JOA. The TSC maintains oversight of sustainment

Chapter 1

1-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

operations within the operational area with direct coordination with the ESC and its sustainment information

systems. This capability provides the TSC commander with the regional focus necessary to provide effective

operational-level support to Army or joint task force missions. The TSC may employ multiple ESCs within

the theater.

1-23. The sustainment command, either the theater sustainment command or the expeditionary sustainment
command, is the senior Army sustainment headquarters (less medical) in an area of responsibility in support

of the ASCC, Corps or joint task force. The sustainment command plans and coordinates the sustainment

functions supporting theater opening and theater closing. They also plan and coordinate theater distribution

and sustainment operations in support of Army, joint, interagency, and multinational forces as required. The

sustainment command communicates sustainment priorities, as determined by the geographic combatant

commander (GCC) and ASCC, to the sustainment brigade commander. See ATP 4-94, Theater Sustainment

Command, for more information about sustainment commands. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned

or attached to a sustainment command.

Division

1-24. The division commands multiple Army brigades and is the Army’s primary tactical headquarters for
decisive action. When required it may serve as a joint task force or joint force land component headquarters

in a limited contingency operation. As required, the division may be the Army component and the joint force

land component within a joint task force. Their principal task is directing subordinate brigade operations.

Divisions are not fixed formations. They may control more than one type of brigade combat team (BCT). A

division can control up to six BCTs with additional appropriate multifunctional supporting brigades. In most

cases, deployed sustainment brigades will have a command relationship with a sustainment command and a

support relationship with a division.

SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

1-25. Support relationships define the desired …