LASA 2: Persuasive Research Paper

8 to 10 pages

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Thesis Statement: You have a single, main point (a thesis statement), and all sentences in your paper directly relate to and support your thesis statement. Your main point is a clearly defined claim and is consistent with current research on the subject selected.


Quality of Support: You support your initial claim with the evidence you have gathered during your research, and moderate use of your personal experience. You give full credit for any ideas that are not your own. You have explained within the text of the paper the reason for the use of any biased or non-academic source.


Presentation of Support: Your reader can easily determine which words are quotes, which words are summaries or paraphrases, and which words are your own ideas. You correctly cite every claim that is not your own or common knowledge and include all necessary information. If the item cited contains quotes, you provide a page or paragraph number. You correctly quote and paraphrase, using the criteria in your text. You use p. for a single page and pp. for multiple pages.


Identifying Opposing Arguments: You present the strongest arguments against your claim; you avoid the “straw man” fallacy and argue as hard for the other side as you argue for your own.


Responding to Opposing Arguments: You evaluate each possible objection and reply appropriately; not all objections can be refuted but all must be addressed.


References Used: Personal communications are only cited within the paper, not on the references page. All other sources must match with a references citation for every source used in the paper and an in-text citation for every source listed on the references page. You have few or no sources that end in “.com” or “.org”.


Proprietary Database and Governmental Web site Usage: For governmental pages, you offer the exact address of the cited Web page, not the home page of the sponsoring organization. If your reader cannot access the page, you have included a complete citation to the page’s location, including DOI where possible. You have removed artifacts (underlining, colored text, etc.) from the URL and any period at the end of the citation.


Length and Substance: The paper meets the length requirements of 8–10 pages of actual text (excluding the title, abstract and reference pages). The work is not padded to meet the length designation, and the discussion in all areas is detailed but succinct.


Reference Page Format: Title (References) and text are in standard form, not bold, italics, or all caps, and in hanging-indent format. You have not used authors’ first names, only their initials. You have correctly capitalized the titles of your reference works. You have included all required information for each type of citation, according to APA style, and your text. You have used the appropriate abbreviations as presented in your text.


Abstract: Your abstract is titled “Abstract” and is not in bold-faced type; it contains 120 words or fewer and is numbered page two (with numerals in place of word numbers). The paragraph is not first-line indented and is double spaced.


Research Paper Format: Your title page is double-spaced, as is the rest of the paper. On the title page you have a header with the words “Running Head:” followed by your running head and a left-aligned page number. For the rest of the paper, you have a running head with five spaces and then the numeral 1; headers are one-half inch from the top of each page, and all margins are one inch. The title is in standard text, is not bolded or in italics, and should be centered on the page. Dates are not part of the cover for APA papers.


Organization: You present your argument in a way that is easy to understand.


Style, Word Choice, and Audience: How do you say what you have to say? For this assignment, assume that your audience includes the members of this class. Your tone should be college-level, without referring to yourself, or addressing the reader directly. Delivery should be objective, in the third-person voice.


Grammar and Mechanics: Use correct spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, apostrophe usage, and homophone. You present your argument academically.





Running head: CONS OF CELL PHONES 1


Cons of cell phones





The technological invention of cellular mobile phones has revolutionized many spheres of life and made the world a global village (Katz, 2008). It is substantiated the fact that what the mobile technology has brought in this computer era is of tremendous value. We can all attest to the fact that communication has been streamlined and made realizable with these gadgets. Talking to a distant cousin is simply the click of a button. These great social media forums (Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp), are some of the best features mostly used and supported by portable electronic devices. The field of academics has been made more authentic because learning materials can easily be accessed online within the shortest time possible with the aid of mobile phones.

The business industry has had positive reforms, all attributed to the mobile phone technology. Nowadays, product advertisement by some of the prominent business moguls is easily done over and accessible heavily by the majority of product users through these gadgets from all angles of the globe. Worldwide socialization and interaction have been made cheap, and more reliable because of mobile phones. Getting friends from Australia is not a big deal. You just grab your Smartphone and login to your Instagram account then within seconds you get connected to a new friend who may prove useful in future life maybe as a business associate or even spouse. However, as much as benefits have been significantly realized, more harm has been felt because of mobile phone invention.

Effects of mobile phones

Consistent cell phone use has posed a threat to global peace and security. Some people post hate messages on social media forums which perpetuate enmity to other members in the community. For example, some whites have fuelled racism and all sorts of negative stereotypes to people of black origin by use of mobile phones (Duracc, 2007). This has resulted to serious repercussions such as physical fights for those who feel demeaned and their ego stripped off by these Mesozoic utterances. Also, terror and other outlined groups such as Islamic states, Alshabaab (based in Somalia) use these gadgets in spreading their heinous acts of terrorism. It is through these electronic devices where youths are being recruited to join the terror groups. The message of hatred is being broadcasted through mobile phones.

Other substantial and long term effect mobile phones have brought to society is the nauseating culture of gambling. Most people especially youths use handheld devices to access betting sites online (Hermann, 2003). Leading companies such as Sportpesa (based in East Africa) rely on almost 95% to mobile phones for promoting and carrying out their businesses. Betting has resulted to laziness among the majority of people worldwide especially the youth who mostly live by chance instead of doing something meaningful in their lives like working hard in school for academic excellence for a better employment or entrepreneurial life. When some lose in the process of gambling, they end up committing suicide which becomes a great loss not only to the family members but the society and country.There have been many reported cases of students squandering their school fees in the name of looking for lump sum amount of money through betting. The society happens to be raising maniacs instead of honest and responsible citizens.

Cell phones are mobile cellular; they are easy to carry anywhere you are going to. The portability may result in physical risks like losing the phone more easily compared to the land lines. Most people store their documents such as journals, work schedules and resumes in their phones. Storing your personal data on the mobile does not provide reliable security to your data, unlike email address where you can store your data and access them anytime you want. In case your phone is stolen or even damaged you risk losing your data permanently unless you have an external backup storage of your documents.

The cause of social vices such as kidnappings, criminal acts in social places is all linked to the use of mobile phones. The majority of youths watch irrelevant movies that have an adverse impact on their lives through cell phones while online or even offline and transform the same behavior to real life situations. Crimes are being orchestrated and instigated through these gadgets. Criminals in rehabilitation centers are using mobile phones to con ignorant people, promising to send them lucrative goodies provided they send them some critical details such as bank account passwords or their e-mail address passwords. There is a need for proper and strict communication policy concerning the use of licensed telecommunication devices to curb these scammers who to a large extent steal from people through mobile technology.

According to Michael Kwan, cell phones pose health problems to end users. There is certainly some evidence that points towards tumors caused by mobile phones. Among these health issues associated with mobile use are DNA damage, eye cancer, sleeplessness, infertility, chronic fatigue and cardiac problems. The evidence is still inconclusive, but continued exposure to mobile phones is likely to pose more human health complications. This is because; cell phones emit low-level energy radio-frequency wavelengths of which continued exposure will have adverse effects to humans. Also, the electromagnetic energy such as gamma and X-rays have multiple ionization to both growth and human reproductive cells. These are some of the concrete reasons as to why exposure time should be minimized to reduce higher chances of being critically affected by cell phones.

The use of cells phones can lead to cultural and moral changes if not well handled. The majority of people have embraced the habit of visiting dirty pornographic sites for the satisfaction of their sexual urges, and as a result, masturbation has been a solution among many youths. With prolonged exposure to porn literature, even the libido level of people is lowered drastically due to unrealistic sexual expectation from spouses. There is a lot of cultural changes in some communities. For example, the western culture has infiltrated almost the entire world, all due to mobile phones. Youths are ever trying to catch up with the popular celebrities sidelining important schedules of their daily occupations. Drug trafficking and substance abuse among the youth has been accelerated by exposure to no-educative sites, where destructive materials are in public domain. We all know the effects of drugs in society, those who are drug dependent are a burden to the community and end up becoming social misfits.

With changing trends in the Smartphone technology phones are expensive to buy and maintain people always want to be catching up with the latest brands in the market. The costs of data bundles, text message subscription, and insurance covers are some of the economic setbacks of phones. The apps installed need to be periodically updated, this is expensive to the consumer. Some of these gadgets need special care such as not being in contact with water or excessive heat to avoid any chance of overheating as it may cause the gadget to explode thus a danger to human life. One will incur enormous costs in the event of any mechanical hitches that may develop due to careless handling of these devices.

Heavy commercial truck and public service vehicle drivers who ignore traffic rules because of texting, surfing or playing mobile phone games end up causing road carnage. Road accident statistics greatly link those careless road users to either listening to music or calling someone while at the same time using the road. Besides, pedestrians have significantly contributed to accidents on roads. The culture of playing loud music through earphones or communicating with friends while on a busy road is fatal as one may not realize an over speeding car or Nissan with malfunctioning brakes. Poor concentration by pedestrians while on the road is costing the lives of many people.

In the research, Vulnerabilities of Smartphone’s by Kulkarni, it is depicted that in the earlier days, the Smartphone’s came with a standard operating system (OS). Resulting in a single Vulnerability leading to attack on a larger number of Smartphone’s causing major security outbreak. Basing on the research, we have many operating systems available today. We have Symbian OS, Windows Mobile, Iphone Os and Android both with different build-up. When you download applications, it is possible that the malicious applications may get installed. The malicious applications may leak your personal information, therefore, compromise your data stored on your cell phone

Kulkarni (2015), states that as the result of the increase in demand and use of the Cell phones, there is an increase in vulnerabilities exploiting the features installed in the various Smartphone. He continues that smartphones are the primary targets of the Malware writers, therefore, increasing the attacks. The personal data stored on the Smartphone may face attacks by malicious software developed by the malware writers. In the contemporary world people tend to survive by creating problems to other and at the same time providing them with the solution so that they can earn money from their victims, it is referred to as `man eat man` economy. Due to the cell phone, people try to make income by creating problems which they are the only ones who can solve, and ask for payments so as to provide the solution (anti-virus).

Mobile phones can be hacked by individuals with malicious motives or intentional eavesdropping by friends who are curious about one’s private life. For example, if you keep your phone at home and someone calls, your relatives or workmates may answer the call making you feeling less secure. There have been incidences of screenshots with weird conversions circulating in social media platforms, exposing some people with their fun characters. A case study of personal sex tapes has been leaked online by people with sinister motives of embarrassing others or making a living out of what they do. Therefore, using these gadgets require high caution level about one’s privacy to avoid intruders from interfering with communication privacy.

Another sinful behavior associated with cellular gadgets is the exchange of explicit sexual materials such as photos, videos among teenagers. These kids have become victims of circumstantial use of mobile phones, which is causing detrimental psychological effects. As well elaborated above, cases of kids accessing banned dirty sites is alarming to the society at large. The mental retardation is some kids nowadays point to the fact of them getting addicted to materials that don’t have any positive impact on their mind.

Nonetheless, human interaction has been hampered as people are usually and greatly focused on their phones while sidelining the real socialization with friends, family and any other person close to them (Huss,2008). This is because cell phones take much of their time hence little or no time at all to talk to their loved ones. Therefore, future generational interaction is going to be greatly limited as people will tend to behave like machines. Very little space will be available for the constructive exchange of ideas which is cardinal in the human social development cycle. Moreover, constant use of mobile phones has become agents of interruptions in the business and social environments. Take for example a phone ringing in the middle of any formal meeting is a nasty behavior of the given mobile user hence will interfere with the smooth running of that formal gathering.

Mobile phones are not eco-friendly. The materials and any other parts used to make cellular gadgets are non-biodegradable. They pose a huge environmental cost for such hazardous electronic waste management because of current ineffective technology for proper care. Once old mobile phones are damped carelessly to the environment, it violates the precautionary and principle of sustainable development (use of current resources without comprising ability of future generation to meet their needs). All electronic devices (cell phones inclusive) have become a great concern to environmental scientists and lawyers at large. Mother earth has to be safeguarded by all means.

According to recent research, the youth are turning from drug addiction to cell phone addiction. The cell phones encourage laziness; most people consider cell phones as the best companion to so many people across the world. Large volume on individual spends a lot of time with their phones rather than working. Even at the workplace the phone culture is witnessed and reducing the productivity of employees from different sectors. Books have lost their values to the society, instead of reading someone find all the confidence and fun he/she require in their cell phones, this habit has affected all people from infants to the adults.

Increased cheating at schools, the use of cell phones has become a major reason for cheating in exams at various schools. Most students carry their cell phones to aid them in doing their exams at school. The phones enable them to access internet websites such as Google to search for the answers to the exam questions. As a result of cheating the exams have lost their role in evaluating the mental ability and understanding of the students in various subjects that they learn in schools. According to Jacobs (2011), cell phones has led some students to devise creative ways to cheat during exams. The students are reported to use their phones I storing information that they intend to use during exams. This research indicated that in the yr-ear 2009 35% of students were involve in cheating using a cell phone and this number is increasing at an alarming rate.

There have been reported cases of some mobile phones exploding like Improvised Explosive Device (IDE); causing serious bodily harm to people. Cell phones are used by criminals to detonate landmines and other explosives.


The communication industry has led to both positive and negative drastic changes to the current society. It is credible to point out that the most affected/vulnerable of the mobile phone are children (Mc Evoy, 2005). This is because kids are ones who are there to continue human race hence all avenues should be resorted to ensure that they are safe. There must be effective policies and laws for better use of licensed electronic devices so that chances of being affected health wise ignorantly are curbed to the fullest.


Balci, M., Devrim, E., & Durak, I. (2007). Effects of mobile phones on oxidant/antioxidant balance in cornea and lens of rats. Current eye research32(1), 21-25.

Hossmann, K. A., & Hermann, D. M. (2003). Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics24(1), 49-62.

Huss, A., Egger, M., Hug, K., Huwiler-Müntener, K., & Röösli, M. (2008). Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva13(3), 1005-1012.

Jacobs, T. A. (2011). What are my rights?: Q & A about teens and the law. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Pub.

Katz, J. E. (2008). Handbook of mobile communication studies. The MIT Press.

Kulkarni, S, P. 2015. Internationals Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vulnerabilities of Smartphones, [Online] Available at:<https://www.irjet.net/archives/V2/i9/IRJET-V2I9294.pdf> [accessed 20th March 2017].

McEvoy, S. P., Stevenson, M. R., McCartt, A. T., Woodward, M., Haworth, C., Palamara, P., & Cercarelli, R. (2005). Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: a case-crossover study. Bmj331(7514), 428.