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Follow the assignment directions and provide a complete outline followed by a 4-page analysis to answer the prompt. Take the time necessary to revise and score well on the rubric evaluation. 

US vs California Constitution 

– Outline

– Writing

– APA Style

Lesson 6: Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions CE 2016

American Government Unit 6: The Constitution and Civil Liberties

Objectives: Compare and contrast the functions and protections of state constitutions versus the U.S. Constitution; Analyze the privacy protections

provided under the U.S. Constitution versus those provided by your state of residence; Assess the merits of general versus explicit language in

constitutional civil liberties protections

Note: This lesson should take 2 days.

The Constitution and Civil Liberties

Throughout this unit, you explored the causes for the U.S.

Constitution and the structure and function of the document.

While analyzing the Bill of Rights and the role the Supreme

Court plays, you studied the balance of competing rights. While

it is essential to learn about the U.S. Constitution and the

workings of the federal government, most of your daily

interactions with any of these principles will be on a state or local

level. Therefore, this portfolio assignment asks you to compare

and contrast your state constitution to the U.S. Constitution.

As you complete this assignment, ask yourself the following questions:

How does your state constitution compare to the U.S. Constitution?

What, if any, additional protections does a state constitution provide its residents?

Objectives

Compare and contrast the functions and protections of state constitutions versus the U.S. Constitution

Analyze the privacy protections provided under the U.S. Constitution versus those provided by your state of

residence

Assess the merits of general versus explicit language in constitutional civil liberties protections

Tip: You will have two days to complete this lesson.

Comparing Constitutions

You will now compose an essay in which you will report on the key similarities and differences between your state

constitution and the U.S. Constitution. This comparison will focus on government structure and civil liberties

protections. The rest of this lesson will help you complete your research and structure your essay accordingly. First,

review the four components of the essay:

Discuss general similarities and differences between your

state constitution and the U.S. Constitution (in terms of

government and document structure).

Report on whether your state constitution includes a

statement or bill of rights. Summarize the kinds of rights

that are protected. How do they compare with the

protections in the U.S. Bill of Rights?

Drill down to the specific right to privacy. Why is the right

to privacy important? Is it explicitly mentioned in your state constitution? What are the exact words?

Evaluate the scope of privacy protection offered—does it provide more, or less, protection than the U.S

Constitution’s implied right to privacy?

Assess the merit of explicit versus general constitutional language in the protection of rights. Is one more

preferable than another? How does the language in your state constitution compare to the language in the

U.S. Constitution?

Research and Analyze Your State Constitution

You will need to obtain a copy of your state constitution to

complete this assignment.

Select the link to access the “Search Constitutions” page from the

NBER/Maryland State Constitutions Project website. Follow the

directions below to access your state constitution.

1. Select Article/Section Text from the Select Type of

Information to Receive drop-down menu.

2. Select your state from the Select State(s) drop-down menu.

3. Select the most recent version of your state constitution from the Select Constitution(s) drop-down menu.

4. Select the Begin Search button at the top of the window to retrieve your state constitution.

Search Constitutions

Modification: Alternatively, conduct a safe search on the Internet or look in your local

library for the most recent version of your state constitution.

Once you have obtained a copy of your state constitution, you will analyze it. Be sure to use the essay prompt as a

guide as you read your state constitution. Identify information in the text of your state constitution that pertains to

the essay prompt.

When you have gathered the important information from your state constitution, you will need to compare that

information to the U.S. Constitution. Focus on areas you feel that apply to the information you have already

attained. Remember, you may use information from activities you completed in previous lessons.

Select the link to access the U.S. Constitution from the Realize™ website.

U.S. Constitution

Tip: Staying Organized

As you are reading your state constitution, you will want to identify the information

pertinent to your essay prompt. There are a variety of ways to help you stay organized

as you examine the U.S. Constitution and your state constitution.

In some viewing tools, you can do this by using the highlight function or the review function

to make notes in the margins.

You can also use a graphic organizer to compile all of the information you collect. There are

four components in the prompt, so you could use four graphic organizers (charts, concept

webs, etc.).

A two-column chart could be used to compare and contrast information. The U.S.

Constitution information could be listed in the first column, and information from

your state constitution could be listed in the second column.

You could also use a concept web. For example, the right to privacy could be in the

center of the web; one half of the surrounding squares could include information

about your state constitution, and the other half of the squares could include

information about the U.S. Constitution.

Select the links to access the various graphic organizers.

Two-Column Chart

Concept Web

Organization is key at this stage of the essay. Organized information will ensure a

smoother writing process.

Plan Your Writing

You have gathered all of the important information from your state constitution and the U.S. Constitution. Creating

an outline can help ensure that all components of the essay prompt are met and can lead to more efficient writing.

Use the essay prompt and the information you gathered to create an outline. For example, the first component of

the prompt reads: Discuss general similarities and differences between your state constitution and the U.S.

Constitution (in terms of government and document structure).

A detailed outline for this component could be structured this way:

I. Discuss general similarities and differences between your state constitution and the U.S. Constitution

A. Document Structure

1. Similarities

a. preambles in both

b. articles in both

2. Differences:

a. state has more articles than U.S.

b. state is much longer than U.S.

B. Government Structure

1. Similarities

a. three branches

b. bicameral legislatures

2. Differences

a. legislatures have different names

b. jurisdiction of courts is different

Depending on your personal preference, you could write the outline and then write that component of the essay, or

you could complete an outline for the entire prompt and then write all of the components at once.

Use the essay prompt and the rubric to guide your writing and ensure that you have met all of the requirements.

Select the link to access the Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions Portfolio Rubric.

Comparing State and U.S. Constitution Portfolio Rubric

Tip: There are a variety of ways to approach your outline. Although your state and government

structure may vary, you can use the following example as a guide to develop your own outline.

Select the link to access a sample student outline.

Sample Outline

Write the Essay

Complete the following activities.

You have researched and analyzed the U.S. Constitution and your state constitution. You have organized all of the

information and created an outline, or plan, for writing. Now it is time to start writing. Your work will be graded on

two overarching components: the content of your essay (how well you address all components of the prompt) and

writing fundamentals (word choice, sentence fluency, and grammatical conventions). The essay should include an

introduction, body paragraphs with strong transitions between topics, and a conclusion.

Select the link to access helpful tips for writing your essay.

Writing Tips

Be sure to use quotes and cite each of your sources. Select the link to access the document APA Style: Citing

Sources and Formatting. Follow these guidelines to set up your paper and provide attribution for your sources.

APA Style: Citing Sources and Formatting

Select the link to access the Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions Portfolio Rubric. Use the rubric to guide your

writing and ensure that you have met all of the requirements.

Comparing State and U.S. Constitution Portfolio Rubric

Revise and Edit Your Essay

Complete the following review activities.

Once you have a completed draft of your essay, revise and edit your writing. There is a difference between revising

and editing. Editing is focused on spelling, grammar, punctuation, and word choice. Do not solely rely upon the

spelling and grammar check of your word processing software. Be sure to read your essay multiple times. Reading

your essay aloud can help you identify areas that do not have a consistent flow, and it can also help you identify

grammatical mistakes.

Revision is focused on the content of the writing. Use the prompt and the portfolio rubric as a guide when revising

your essay.

Are all components of the prompt addressed?

Are there strong transitions from one topic to the next?

Did you include enough supporting evidence for each section?

Did you include an in-depth analysis of the similarities and differences between the two constitutions?

Once you have revised and edited your essay, use the portfolio rubric to complete a self-assessment. Make any

necessary adjustments before submitting the final product.

Select the link to access the Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions Portfolio Rubric.

Comparing State and U.S. Constitution Portfolio Rubric

Tip: There are a variety of ways to approach writing an essay. Although your thesis statement,

supporting evidence, and source material may vary, you can use the following example as a guide to

developing your own writing.

Select the link to access a sample student essay.

Comparing Hawaii’s State Constitution to the U.S. Constitution

Your Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions essay is a portfolio item. When you are finished,

please submit your answers to your teacher using the Drop Box below. Prior to submitting, review

the portfolio rubric. This is the guideline your teacher will use to grade your work.

Complete and submit the Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions
assessment.

Writing Tips

Getting Started and Writing an Introduction

One of the most difficult parts of writing an essay is getting started. Introductions can be a difficult place to start

when writing an essay. It is often easier for some writers to write the body paragraphs first and then return to write

the introduction.

The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay (much like the Preamble does for the U.S.

Constitution).

The introduction should engage the reader. You want to trigger her interest in what she is about to read.

The introduction should include a thesis statement that summarizes the content of the essay. For this essay,

the introduction should reference the comparison and contrast of the two constitutions.

Writing Strong Body Paragraphs and Transitions

When writing the body paragraphs of the essay, use the prompt as your guide. This will help you maintain a

clear focus.

Each body paragraph should include a main idea statement and supporting evidence. In this particular essay,

a main idea statement for the first component of the prompt could be: The New York Constitution and the

U.S. Constitution have very similar governmental structures. Within that paragraph, you will provide

examples of how the two are similar, such as the fact that they both have bicameral legislatures.

There are four components for this particular essay, but that does not mean you only need to have four body

paragraphs. The second component of the prompt asks for a comparison of statement of rights. A full

comparison may take two paragraphs rather than one. You are not writing an encyclopedia, but you want to

make sure you fully address all components of the prompt.

You want to include strong transitions from one topic to the next. Transition sentences are important for

creating a flow in the document. Examples of transition words include although, in addition to, first, finally,

similarly, and on the contrary. A sample transition sentence from the section on the Bill of Rights to the

section on privacy is: Although privacy is not explicitly included in the Bill of Rights, it is evident in many

aspects of the Minnesota Constitution.

Include academic and content-specific vocabulary (in the introduction and conclusion as well). For example,

instead of saying, “In the first part of the U.S. Constitution, . . . ” write “In Article I of the U.S. Constitution,

. . . ”. Revisit lessons in this unit and look for key words that could be used to boost your writing.

Writing Good Conclusions

Conclusions are basically summaries that include the most important information as well as something extra to

make the reader feel like reading your essay was a good use of her time.

Look back at your thesis statement and the main idea statements from each body paragraphs. They can help

you when crafting your conclusion.

Ask yourself the following question: If someone was only able to read the conclusion, what information

would you want her to know?

Compare your conclusion and your introduction. They should address much of the same information, but

they serve different purposes, so they should not be identical.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC.

Comparing Hawaii’s State Constitution to the U.S. Constitution:

A Comparative Analysis

Sample Student

Connections Academy

Legislative language used to craft constitutional documents can be intentionally restrictive or open to interpretation to give governments parameters for interpreting laws to appropriately regulate society. State constitutions are generally more detailed than the U.S. Constitution. This is not to say that there are not similarities between what is contained in the state constitutions and the federal Constitution. For example, Hawaii’s constitution and the U.S. Constitution both include a preamble that lists general rights afforded to the people of Hawaii and, alternatively, the United States. Both constitutions contain articles specifying the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. State constitutions tend to diverge from the federal Constitution in outlining the rights and responsibilities of local entities. Hawaii’s constitution has 18 articles compared to 7 in the U.S. Constitution. Within these articles are more detailed topics such as how the state deals with elections, taxation, local government, public health, and conservation policies. This comparative analysis will discuss the Hawaiian constitution to the U.S. Constitution in terms of the similarities and differences in their bill of rights and a comparison of their provisions for protection of privacy rights.

The U.S. Constitution’s Bill of Rights and the Hawaii State Constitution’s Bill of rights are similar in their approach to outlining citizen’s protected rights. Like the U.S. Bill of Rights, Hawaiians are specifically guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition. For example, in article 1.4 of the Hawaiian Bill of Rights, “No law shall be enacted respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” This is reflective of the article three of the U.S. Bill of Rights which declares that, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” As a second point of comparison, protections are guaranteed for due process for citizens accused of crimes in both bills of rights. For example, Hawaiians are protected against discrimination and are promised equal protection under the law. In article 1.5 of the Hawaii Bill of Rights it states, “No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor be denied the equal protection of the laws, nor be denied the enjoyment of the person’s civil rights or be discriminated against in the exercise thereof because of race, religion, sex or ancestry.” This echoes article 7 of U.S. Bill of Rights which states, “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury…nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law….” Hawaii, like many states adopted inalienable rights from the U.S. foundational documents, which proliferated the model of democracy for their societies.

Yet, a key difference between Hawaiian foundational documents and the U.S. constitution is that the Hawaiian constitution goes into much more detail about civil liberties. Like the Declaration of Independence, but not directly stated in the U.S. Constitution, Hawaiians are guaranteed the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. As noted in the previous paragraph, equal rights between the sexes are also guaranteed. This is not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution after the Equal Rights Amendment failed to gain approval from the necessary 38 states in the 1980s.(U.S. History, n.d.) Segregation is specifically outlawed in the Hawaiian constitution as is imprisonment for debt. Finally, the people of Hawaii are guaranteed access to records of persons who committed certain crimes against children within its Bill of Rights. All-in-all, the Hawaiian constitution goes into greater detail in terms of the rights afforded to its citizens (Hawaii State Constitution, article I).

Another difference between the U.S foundational and Hawaiian foundational documents is the right to privacy, which is implied within the U.S. Constitution but stated explicitly in Hawaii’s. This right is important since it protects people against unnecessary interference from the government as long as they are following the law and not harming others. The right to privacy is stated in Article I, Section 6 of the Hawaiian state constitution: “The right of the people to privacy is recognized and shall not be infringed without the showing of a compelling state interest. The legislature shall take affirmative steps to implement this right (Hawaii State Constitution, article I, section 6).” The state is not only specific about privacy being a guaranteed right, but it also compels the state legislature to protect the right when necessary. In addition to listing privacy as a state right, the website on which Hawaii’s state constitution can be found lists examples of how the Hawaiian state court system has interpreted this section. This is different from the fourth amendment to the Constitution which abstractly implies the right to privacy by protecting citizens from “…unreasonable searches and seizures…” by providing protection for “…people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects….” These differences reflect the freedom of states within a federalist system to adopt the spirit or letter of U.S. Constitutional principles as determined necessary for their individual populations.

Therefore, specific documents used to govern society harness legislative language to outline rights and limitations which are in some cases prescribed or open to interpretation to evolve with the needs the people and historic times. Hawaii’s state constitution is clearly more specific and detailed than the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Constitution’s general language is necessary since there are fifty states that can get more specific about the rights of their citizens. Since the United States encompasses such a large amount of territory, certain states should be free to list out certain rights. Hawaii strikes a good middle ground in terms of privacy and general versus specific language. While it is mentioned as a right, the Hawaiian constitution does not get into excessive detail about what privacy rights entail. This is left to the court system. Therefore, Hawaii’s constitution does provide more comprehensive protections to the right of privacy as opposed to the U.S. Constitution, but also remains malleable to adapt and serve its citizens.

References

Hawaii Bill of Rights, article I

Hawaii State Constitution, article I.

U.S. Bill of Rights, article VII

U.S. Constitution, amendment I.

U.S. History, 57c. The Equal Rights Amendment. Retrieved from

http://www.ushistory.org/us/57c.asp

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Name Date

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions Portfolio Rubric
Directions: Use the rubric below as a guide in writing and revising your essay.

Criteria
(Weight)

Excellent (4) Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Points Awarded

Ideas/Purpose
(× 2)

The comparison
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution is
clearly stated for
each element of
the prompt.

The response
strongly
supports the
comparison with
specifics from the
documents
(articles,
amendments,
etc.).

The comparison
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution is
stated for each
element of the
prompt.

The response
mostly supports
the comparison
with specifics
from the
documents
(articles,
amendments,
etc.).

The comparison
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution may
be unclear for
one element of
the prompt.

The response
provides basic
support for the
comparison with
specifics from the
documents
(articles,
amendments,
etc.).

The comparison
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution is
unclear for
more than one
element of the
prompt.

The response has
little or no
support for the
comparison with
specifics from the
documents
(articles,
amendments,
etc.).

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved. 2

Criteria
(Weight)

Excellent (4) Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Points Awarded

Analysis
(×2)

The response
contains a clear
and fully
developed
analysis of the
similarities and
differences
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution in
terms of
government
structure,
document
structure, bill of
rights, privacy,
and language.

The response
contains an
adequate
analysis of the
similarities and
differences
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution in
terms of
government
structure,
document
structure, bill of
rights, privacy,
and language.

The response
contains a basic
or weak analysis
of the similarities
and differences
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution in
terms of
government
structure,
document
structure, bill of
rights, privacy,
and language.

The response
contains a
limited analysis
of the similarities
and differences
between the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution in
terms of
government
structure,
document
structure, bill of
rights, privacy,
and language.

Comprehension
(×2)

The response
shows a strong
understanding of
the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution.

The response
shows an
adequate
understanding of
the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution.

The response
shows a basic
understanding of
the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution.

The response
shows a limited
understanding of
the U.S.
Constitution and
the state
constitution.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved. 3

Criteria
(Weight)

Excellent (4) Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Points Awarded

Word Choice
(×2)

The vocabulary is
clearly
appropriate for
the audience and
purpose.

Words are used
effectively.

Writing is rich
with a variety of
academic and
domain-specific
words.

The vocabulary is
generally
appropriate for
the audience and
purpose.

Most words are
used effectively.

Writing shows an
adequate use of
academic and
domain-specific
words.

The vocabulary is
somewhat
appropriate for
the audience and
purpose.

The word choice
is weak or
ineffective.

Writing shows a
weak use of
academic and
domain-specific
words.

The vocabulary
may not be
appropriate for
the audience or
purpose.

There are
multiple errors
in word choice.

Writing shows
limited or no
use of academic
or domain-
specific words.

Organization
(× 1)

There is a clear
and effective
organizational
structure.

The introduction
and conclusion
are effective.

Ideas are
organized
logically.

There is an
organizational
structure.

The introduction
and conclusion
are adequate.

Ideas are
organized
logically, though
a few ideas may
be out of place.

The
organizational
structure is
inconsistent.

The introduction
and conclusion
are weak or not
present.

Some ideas are
extraneous or out
of place.

There is little or
no organizational
structure.

There is no
introduction or
conclusion.

Ideas are limited
or extraneous.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved. 4

Criteria
(Weight)

Excellent (4) Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Points Awarded

Conventions
(× 1)

There is a strong
command of
conventions.

Punctuation,
capitalization,
and spelling are
consistently
correct.

There is a
general
command of
conventions.

Punctuation,
capitalization,
and spelling are
mostly correct.

There is a partial
command of
conventions.

Punctuation,
capitalization,
and spelling are
inconsistent or
weak.

Errors in
conventions may
occasionally
interfere with
meaning.

There is a
limited
command of
conventions.

Punctuation and
capitalization are
mostly
incorrect.
There are
multiple errors
in spelling.

Errors in
conventions
often interfere
with meaning.

Citations
(x1)

All references
are cited clearly
and accurately.

Most references
are cited
accurately.

References are
cited
inconsistently.
There are some
errors in
reference
citations.

Few or no
references are
cited.

There are
multiple errors
in reference
citations.

0 points: No evidence of ability to demonstrate targeted skill.

Total points: /44

Comments

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  • Comparing State and U.S. Constitutions Portfolio Rubric
  1. Comments:
  2. total points:
  3. conventions points:
  4. citations points:
  5. word choice points:
  6. organization points:
  7. analysis points:
  8. comprehension points:
  9. ideas / purpose points:
  10. name:
  11. date:

APA Style: Citing Sources and Formatting

Not only does a good research paper include thorough research and thoughtful
analysis, it follows specific rules for citing sources and formatting. This brief guide will
illustrate how to correctly reference your sources and set up your paper.

For science and social studies courses, Connections Education® students should use
American Psychological Association (APA) style for citing sources and formatting.

The APA publishes the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
This is a very useful book, as it goes into great depth explaining the steps for writing
a paper. The book is available at most bookstores, and your local library likely has
copies.

This document covers some essential points discussed in the Publication Manual, such
as how to correctly reference common sources and format your paper. If you
encounter an issue, such as citing a source that is not covered in this document,
consult the Publication Manual or ask your teacher.

For instance, if you want to incorporate pictures or other images into your paper, ask
your teacher about the best way to do this. Depending on your teacher’s preference,
images could be included within the body of the paper or in an appendix.

Always follow the specific guidelines that your teacher gives you.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Formatting Your Paper
The following are some basic steps for setting up your paper. Note that all formatting
instructions are designed for use with Microsoft® Word® 2010.

• Paper Size and Margins – Your paper should be set to 8.5 inches by 11
inches. This is standard letter format. Your page margins should be set at 1
inch on all sides.

o

o

To set margins: Select the Page Layout tab, and then select the Margins
drop-down menu. Set the top, bottom, left, and right margins at 1 inch.

To set paper size: Select the Page Layout tab, and then select the Size
drop-down menu. Set the paper size to Letter. (This should be the
default setting, so this step may not be necessary.)

• Fonts and Font Size – Choose a font and size that is easy to read—Times
New Roman and Courier New are preferred. Use a 12-point font size. The text
color should always be black when writing research papers and formal essays.

o

o

Times New Roman 12 looks like this.

Courier New 12 looks like this.

• Headers and Page Numbers – On the top of each page of your paper, you
should have a “running head” that is flush left. The running head is your
paper’s title that has been shortened to no more than 50 characters (including
spaces). The words Running head should appear before the title on the title
page (but only on the title page). The headline of your paper should be in all
caps. After the title page, use only the shortened version. Please see the
example provided below.

o To set your header: Select Header from the Header & Footer section of
the Insert tab. Choose the option that aligns your header to the left.
Then type the title of your paper. Close the header and footer view. Your
header will now carry throughout the document as you type. If you need
to edit this information later, choose Header from the Header & Footer
section.

The page number should appear on each page. It should be flush right.

o To set your page number: Select Page Number from the Header & Footer
section of the Insert tab. Choose Top of Page from the drop-down menu,
and select the option that aligns the page number on the right.

• Punctuation and Spacing – Use only one space after periods and punctuation
marks. Double-space the lines in your paper. This makes it easier to read and
allows your teacher to easily add notes, comments, and feedback. When you
review your drafts, you can also use this extra space to write notes for
revisions and edits. Text should be aligned to the left. Also make sure to indent

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

the first line of all paragraphs by one-half inch. You can do this by pressing the
Tab key.

o To set spacing to double-spaced: Select the Page Layout tab, and then
select the Paragraph drop-down menu. In the Line Spacing section,
select Double, then select OK.

• Italics and Quotation Marks – Titles of books and plays should be italicized.
Titles of magazines and newspapers should be placed in quotes. There are
many other types of works that should receive this treatment. To review APA
style for different types of works, access the Purdue Online Writing Lab
website.

• Capitalization – When writing the title of any source in the body of your
paper, capitalize all words that are four or more letters long.

o Example: To Kill a Mockingbird

Also capitalize shorter words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and
adverbs.

o Example: There Is Nothing Left to Lose

The Four Parts of an APA Paper
APA papers contain four parts: the title page, the abstract, the body of the paper, and
the References page.

• Title Page – This page should contain the following:

o

o

o

o

The “running head” at the top, flush left (your paper’s title that has been
shortened to no more than 50 characters, including spaces). Include the
words Running head before the title, but only do this on the title page.
The words Running head should be in sentence case, but the title should
be in all caps.

The title, which should be in all caps. It should not be more than 12
words.

Your name

The institutional affiliation (this will be your school’s name)

• Abstract – Your paper should have an abstract. The abstract should be a 150–
250-word summary of the key points of your research. It requires its own
separate page, which comes directly after the title page. It will include your
paper’s title (which should appear on every page as the running head), and the
word Abstract at the top, centered on its own line. The first line of text on the
abstract should not be indented. Note: Most papers written in APA style
contain an abstract, but your teacher may not require one. Check with your
teacher for the paper’s specific requirements.

• Body – This is the content of your paper.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

• References – This page is a comprehensive list of all the sources you cited
within the paper. It functions like a works cited page. It appears at the end as
its own page. For further detail, see the References section of this document.

The Title Page

Running Head: ALTERNATIVE FUEL SOURCES FOR AUTOMOBILES 1

Alternative Fuel Sources for Automobiles

Kermit T. Frog

Connections Education

The running head includes the words
Running head (in sentence case) and is
flush left. The page number is flush
right.

Include:

• the running head
• the page number
• the title in all caps
• your name
• your institutional affiliation

The Abstract Page

ALTERNATIVE FUEL SOURCES FOR AUTOMOBILES 2

Abstract

Today more than ever, people are looking to scientists and engi neers to find new ways to

power our cars and trucks. Rising oil prices, du e to instability in the Middle East and an aging

fuel refining infrastructure, and environmental concerns are causing drivers to look at the

possibility of driving cars powered by sources other than oil. There are several sources to

consider, ranging from hydrogen to fuels from . . .

The running head is flush left. The page
number is flush right. The word Abstract
is centered on the page and on its own
line. The first line of text is not
indented.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Citing Sources: What Is the Purpose?
It is extremely important that you cite, or identify, the sources you used to write your
paper. If you do not cite your sources, your work could be considered plagiarism.

Plagiarism occurs when someone uses another person’s words, products, or ideas
without properly acknowledging the original work. The simplest form of plagiarism is
copying someone else’s words and claiming as your own. Another form of plagiarism
is using another person’s ideas and claiming them as your own.

Plagiarism can be unintentional, too. Even if you simply forget to cite your sources, it
could still be considered plagiarism. By properly citing your sources, you will avoid
any cause for concern.

This document introduces formatting and citing sources. To review APA style in more
depth, including how to cite source types not covered in this document, visit the
Purdue Online Writing Lab website.

Citing Sources in Your Paper
There are two important steps to follow in order to correctly cite sources for your
paper. The first step is citing the source within your paper. For this, APA recommends
using parenthetical citation.

Citations for Paraphrased Information
The following is a passage from a book by Michele Anthony about running cars on
vegetable oil.

Does the car in front of yours smell like a deep fryer? It’s probably a diesel that has
been converted to run on vegetable oil. Many people are buying old diesel cars at a
bargain and then converting them. Not only does making the switch reduce the CO2
in the atmosphere, it allows drivers to run their vehicles virtually for free—assuming
they recycle used oil from restaurants. But read closely. It takes a moderate amount
of patience and know-how to convert your car smoothly and safely.

The following sentence is an example of a research paper that restates some of the
information found in the passage from Michele Anthony’s book. When you paraphrase
information (i.e., don’t quote it directly), identify the source’s author within the text of
your paper (at the end of the sentence), including the author’s last name and the year
of publication in parentheses. A comma separates the name and the year.

Converting a diesel engine reduces CO2 and allows drivers to run their vehicles for free (Anthony,

2010). It takes . . .

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Citations for Directly Quoted Information
When you use direct quotes from the source, include the author’s last name, the year of
publication, and the page number preceded by “p.” in parentheses. A comma
separates the name and the year.

If you get a whiff of French fries while sitting in traffic, it’s probably not fast food—it’s more

likely “a diesel that has been converted to run on vegetable oil” (Anthony, 2010, p. 14).

If you use the author’s name in the sentence, include the date of publication by his or
her name, and the page number at the end of the quote.

While Anthony (2010) highlights the benefits, she notes that the conversion “requires a moderate

amou nt of patience and know-how” (p. 17).

Additional Styles of Parenthetical Citation
Citing Works When You Don’t Know the Author – Use the title of the work and
the publication year.

Suppose you cite a newspaper editorial, “Why Light Rail Is Good For Everyone,”
published in 2014. The editorial does not include the author’s name. Include the
name of the article (it can be shortened if it’s longer) and the publication date.

The benefits of public transportation—including the proposed light rail system—reach not just to

those who cannot afford cars, but even to those at the highest income levels in the commu nity

(“Why Light Rail,” 2014).

Using More Than One Source from the Same Author – You can also use the title
of the work when you are citing more than one source from the same author. For
example, if you are citing both Anthony’s article “Free Ride” and her book Greening
Your Life, use the name of each source in the parenthetical citation.

Not only does Anthony endorse alternative fuels by calling them “the wave of the future” (“Free

Ride” 4), she also offers many additional ways to make an environmental impact in the home,

such as “recycling, paying attention to the thermostat, and powering off electronics whenever

possible” (Greening Your Life 58).

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Citing Two Authors with the Same Last Name – Use the author’s first initial with
the last name.

Some scientists believe that we are at a significant crossroads in the development of new fuel

sources (A. Peterson 98). Some say creating new sources could cause a “disastrous rise” in the

cost of living (Q. Peterson 24).

Citing Websites – Since websites don’t use page numbers, use the author’s name,
the article title, and the date of publication. If there is no author, include the title of
the website and the year. If there is no date, use “n.d.” (include the quotation
marks).

According to experts, by the end of the 21st century, energy trends will shift away from fossil

fuels toward alternative sources. Coal, currently the most abundant fuel, will likely run out in 250

years (“Energy, 2013”).

As with a print source, if you use the exact wording from the source, surround those
words with quotation marks.

According to the author, Earth is “slowly running out of gas as it speeds down the road”

(“Energy”).

Personal Interview/Communication – Include the name of the person
interviewed, followed by a comma. Then add the words personal communication,
followed by a comma. End with the date the interview occurred.

Mr. Bashir provided his account of his time as an employee of a wind farm. Bashir outlined
his duties and his opinions on wind power, stating he was “pleased to work with a renewable energy
source” (J. Bashir, personal communication, February 8, 2013).

Note: A personal communication is not included on the references page because it is
a resource that cannot be retrieved.

Block Quotations – Sometimes you may want to include a long quotation (which is
often referred to as a block quote). These block quotes—40 words or longer—require
special formatting. The entire quote should be indented 1 inch from the left margin.
Since it is set off from the rest of the text in this way, it is clear that it’s a quote and

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

therefore does not need quotation marks. The parenthetical citation is placed after
the last punctuation in the quote.

The argument for continuing to develop initiatives for offshore wind power is clear:

Wind is a clean and renewable energy source that can have a tremendous impact

on energy use nationwide. The economical effects are clear and immediate:

adoption of wind power will stabilize prices for consumers and reduce the

overwhelming but often hidden cost of gas emissions (Weingarten, 2002, p. 22).

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Citing Sources in a References Page
You’ve learned that citing sources within your paper is very important. It is just as
important to create page that organizes all of your references. The references page
provides detailed information about the sources you used in your paper.

Specific information about publishing, such as the city of publication and the name of
the publisher, can usually be found on the first few pages of a book or magazine.

Formatting the References Page
Use the following guidelines when formatting the references page:

• Indent all lines after the initial line by one-half inch.
• Cite author’s names as last name followed by first name.
• The reference page should be alphabetized by authors’ names.

Some of the most common types of citations are as follows.

Book Citations
The following formatting is the given for books and will deviate only slightly based on
the number of authors.

Book by One Author

List the information as follows:

• author’s last name and first initial

• year of publication listed in parenthesis

• book title (in italics, listed in sentence case)

• location, including city and state; use the state’s postal abbreviation

• publisher

Anthony, M. (2006). Greening your life. New York, NY: Faraway Press.

Book by More Than One Author

List the author’s names in the order they appear on the book title. Use the authors’
first initials instead of their first names. Use an ampersand symbol to separate the
names. The rest of the formatting is the same as a book with one author.

Vinson, J. & Robertson, M. (2004). Texas and the great depression. Houston, TX: Texas

Press.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Encyclopedia Citations
List the information as follows:

• author’s last name and first initial

• the year of publication in parenthesis

• the topic of the entry

• the word In followed by the encyclopedia’s name

• the volume and page numbers in parenthesis

• city and state of publication

• the publisher

Model, A. (1993). Carbon. In Encylopedia Examplica. (Vol. 21, pp. 107–108). Chicago, IL:

Encylopedia Examplica Press.

Magazine and Newspaper Citations
Newspaper Article

List the information as follows:

• author’s last name and first initial

• year and date of publication (note the order of the date)

• article title (no quotes, listed in sentence case)

• publication name

• page number (designate the page number(s) with p. or pp.)

Acosta, L. (2004, August 16). New fuels come to Springfield. Springfield Telegram, pp.

A4–A5.

Magazine Article

List the information the same as you would a newspaper article, except do not
designate the page number with a p. or pp. Also include the volume number after the
publication name.

Anthony, M. (2010, March 5). Free ride. Outside the Lines, 4, 12–16.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Web Citations
Basic Website Citation

Follow the same formatting as you would for the equivalent print resource. When
possible, include the year, month, and date. If that information is not available, use
the year of publication. Include the phrase Retrieved from before listing the URL.

Article from an Online Periodical

Cromie, W. J. (2015, August 4). Alternative energy sources. The New Book of Popular

Science. Grolier Online. Retrieved from http://nbps.grolier.com/

cgi-bin/article?assettype=t&assetid=4034970.

Scholarly Journal Referenced Online

List the information the same as you would a magazine article. Also include the
volume number after the publication name.

Baxter, A. (1998). Confronting nationalism and feminist identity: the voice of women in

the British Isles. Women’s Literature 16.1. 41–50.

http://womensliterature/confrontingnationalism.org

Note: APA recommends listing an article’s Digital Object Modifier (DOI) when it’s
available instead of the journal’s URL; this makes it easier to reference later. Consult
with your teacher if you have questions about how to use or cite scholarly journals.

Article from a Database

List the information the same as you would a magazine article. Also include the
volume number after the publication name.

Rockne, N. (2011). Day at the garbage dump. Fuel Hunter, 6, 120–125. Retrieved from

www.fuelhunter.com.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

Formatting Your References Page
The references page follows the last page of your research paper. To ensure it
begins on its own separate page, insert a page break after the last sentence of your
paper.

• To insert a page break: Select the Insert tab, then select Page Break.

The references page has the same margins, double-spacing, and header as your
paper. The page’s title, References, should be centered on the top line of the page.
You do not need to put extra line spaces between your sources. However, you will
need to indent the second (and any additional) lines of your source.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

13

References

Acosta, L. (2004, August 16). New fuels come to Springfield. Springfield Telegram,

pp. A4-A5.

Anthony, M. (2010, March 5). Free ride. Outside the Lines, 4, 12–16.

Anthony, M. (2006). Greening Your Life. New York, NY: Faraway Press.

Baxter, A. (1998). Confronting nationalism and feminist identity: the voice of women

in the British Isles. Women’s Literature 16.1. 41–50.

http://womensliterature/confrontingnationalism.org

Cromie, W. J. (2015, August 4). Alternative energy sources. The New Book of Popular

Science. Grolier Online. Retrieved from ://nbps.grolier.com/cgi-

bin/article?assettype=t&assetid=4034970.

Model, A. (1993). “Carbon.” Encylopedia Examplica. (Vol. 21, pp. 107–108). Chicago,

IL: Encylopedia Examplica Press.

Rockne, N. (2011). Day at the garbage dump. Fuel Hunter, 6, 120–125. Retrieved from

www.fuelhunter.com.

Vinson, J. & Robertson, M. (2004). Texas and the Great Depression. Houston, TX:

Texas Press.

© 2016 Connections Education LLC. All rights reserved.

  • APA Style: Citing Sources and Formatting
    • Formatting Your Paper
      • The Four Parts of an APA Paper
        • The Title Page
        • The Abstract Page
      • Citing Sources in Your Paper
        • Citations for Paraphrased Information
        • Citations for Directly Quoted Information
        • Additional Styles of Parenthetical Citation
    • Citing Sources in a References Page
      • Formatting the References Page
      • Book Citations
        • Book by One Author
        • Book by More Than One Author
      • Encyclopedia Citations
      • Magazine and Newspaper Citations
        • Newspaper Article
        • Magazine Article
      • Web Citations
        • Basic Website Citation
        • Article from an Online Periodical
        • Scholarly Journal Referenced Online
        • Article from a Database
    • Formatting Your References Page