HIM 4222 – Unit 2 Assignment: Data Dictionary

Purpose:  Construct a data dictionary to model a healthcare database collection tool.

Background:  At the time of discharge, data is collected from patient records to form secondary databases for use in producing indexes (diagnosis, operative, and physician), special registries, quality studies, reports about utilization of facility services, analysis of physician practice patterns, long term planning needs, etc.

The data is often collected through an abstracting process which involves extracting specific data elements from the patient’s record and entering the data element on a data collection tool.   The data collection tool may be in the form of a paper abstract or an electronic database.   Once the data is collected and entered into the system, a variety of reports can be produced based on queries of the database. These reports can take the form of summaries of patient data entered in the system, graphics that illustrate selected data, statistical information, etc.

With specialized registries, there may also be a follow-up data collection component in which data about each patient in the registry is collected at designated times (e.g. annually) to update the data in the system to provide information about survival rates, efficacy of treatment, etc.

In the past few years the number and variety of specialized registries has increased dramatically.   Registries can be operated at any and/or all levels: facility-specific, multiple facilities, state-mandated and national.  Some are voluntary; others are required by a governmental unit.   For example, participation in a Cancer Registry is usually voluntary but if a hospital decides to maintain a Cancer Registry, it must adhere to standards of the American College of Surgeons.   In some states, reporting of cancer data to a state data system is required and an individual facility cancer registry may be a vehicle for collecting the data that is required.  At the national level, cancer data is collected, analyzed, researched and published by a number of different organizations such as The American College of Surgeons, the National Cancer DataBase, the SEER Program (a national coordinating group for cancer registries), etc.

Because of their background in data collection techniques, HIM professionals are appropriate professionals to be involved in the design of data collection tools for developing databases and specialized registries.  One of the important elements of designing a database is identification and definition of the data elements that will be collected.  This project is intended to focus attention on the development of databases, data collection and potential uses of aggregate patient data.

__________________________________________________________________________

In this assignment, you will be developing a modified data dictionary for a specialized registry/database for a disease or condition described in one of the scenarios below or one of your choosing and approved by the instructor.

Select a specialized registry scenario from the list (below) or develop your own scenario for a disease or operative registry.

Write 2-3 paragraphs explaining your condition/disease and why this topic was chosen.

Based on format and content guidelines for a data dictionary (see readings, slides, supplemental articles), identify a minimum of twelve (12) data elements that you will collect in the selected registry (you may choose to include more than 12). The data elements should include:

Demographic data (minimum of six elements) about the patient (e.g. patient DOB). Note: with six elements, you will not capture every important item about patient demographics so you are doing just those that you select as most important (for example, you may want age but not street address). You may want to know the sex if the condition can be different in different sexes (including LGBTQ and more)

Clinical data (minimum of six data elements) specific to disease/condition that the registry (e.g. blood sugar lab results for a diabetes registry). This information will come from your research.

At least one clinical data element must have a reference range (e.g. lab value, BP, etc.). You will need to do research about your disease process in order to identify lab values, clinical signs/symptoms, etc. in order to identify a data element with a reference range.

Identify at least one required government standard (eg Joint Commission, Medicare/Medicaid).

Any other data that you deem to be useful (think long term ~ what data elements might help research in 10-20 years).  There are no wrong answers – think futuristic.

Develop a data dictionary using either a table or spreadsheet and include the following :

A title for your data dictionary

Name of the data elements/attributes

Unique Mnemonic/Identifier for each data element/attributes

Description or definition of each data element/attribute

Result Type (e.g. numeric, alphabetic, free text, etc.)

Description of the attributes of each data element and/or inclusion of any relevant numeric ranges or alpha interpretation (ex:  Sex = M, F or U)

Size parameters for data field

Formatting rules for the data field (ex:  Date of discharge =  MM/DD/YYYY; field is limited to numerical data)

Reference ranges, as appropriate (e.g. Oral temp/Celsius = 36.8-37.3°)

Whether attribute is required or optional

Use a variety of data types such as alpha, numeric, text, drop downs, multi-selection, etc.

Give examples of how your data collection tool (and collected data) could be used in the future.  (2-3 paragraphs)

A bibliography of resources should be included. The bibliography must include references about the specific disease/condition that you selected for the registry. You might also want to read articles about disease registries, data dictionaries, standards for data items, etc. .

The data dictionary may be done in a Word table, Excel spreadsheet or google.

Be sure that there is a logical flow to the data elements that are to be entered into the system. The person doing the abstracting of data should follow a logical sequence in extracting the data items from the patient record in order to enter them into the database. For example, all demographic data elements should be placed together.

SCENARIOS FOR CLINICAL DATABASES (You may choose one of these or develop your own):

Violence-related injuries:  trauma/injuries that are the result of a violent act including such things as firearm injuries, domestic about, etc.

AIDS/HIV: NOT interested in patient-identifiable data and want to assure that the system protects the confidentiality of the patient but include risk factors present in individuals who contract the disease, associated complications or co-morbid conditions that occur, length of survival and effectiveness of various treatment modalities.

Cardiovascular diseases:  especially interested in assessing risk factors related to CV disease

Premature births in Minnesota and related perinatal morbidity/mortality.   Include maternal health factors that could be linked to premature birth (e.g. smoking).

Multiple Sclerosis:  include genetic and environmental factors that may be linked to the development of MS.

Cesarean section including the reason for C-section, the health status of the mother at the time of delivery, associated diagnoses, the condition of the infant at birth including common indicators such as birth weight, APGAR score, medical diagnoses, etc.

Motor vehicle accidents (all types of motorized vehicles) that result in injury to an individual with emphasis on types and severity of injuries that result, mortality rates and occurrence of associated debilitating conditions, gender and age data, etc.

Diabetes mellitus:  emphasis on risk factors, management of diabetes especially personal health and wellness initiatives.

Gulf War Veteran medical database tracking associated physical and psychological conditions associated with wartime action.  Database should include Gulf War I, Iraqi war, and Afghanistan war veterans.

Crohn’s disease registry with focus on risk factors, treatment, and age/gender.

Autism registry with focus on risk factors, genetic/familial history, severity of condition.

You may also develop your own scenario but it must be approved by the instructor (e.g. birth defects registry, diabetes registry, transplant database, influenza database)

A   sample data dictionary is also available for your review.

THIS ASSIGNMENT IS ATTACHED

Please work on all the attached documents

HIM 4222 – Unit 2 Assignment: Data Dictionary Purpose: Construct a data dictionary to model a healthcare database collection tool. Background: At the time of discharge, data is collected from patie
Note: This document is view only (no need to request access). To edit/add to this document either: Go to File>Make a Copy, complete task and then add that link to the course. Remember to make it shareable so faculty can read the submission automatically. OR Go to File>Download in another version, complete and then add that link to the course.____________________________________________________________________ HIM 4222 – Clinical Data Management Unit 2 Assignment: Using Statewide Healthcare Databases Purpose: Compare state, public healthcare databases and find benefits/challenges of each. DESCRIPTION An important skill for health information management professionals is the ability to search for aggregate health information for decision support and other purposes. This can be particularly useful when one is searching for comparative information, such as that required to meet Joint Commission Information Management standards. Many states as well as several federal agencies maintain health-related databases that are open and accessible to the public. Those sites contain valuable information that can be used in research, statistical studies, comparative studies, etc. This assignment is designed to provide experience working with searching out and utilizing on-line interactive healthcare databases and to provide you with experience in analyzing and summarizing the results of data queries. The statewide databases that I am asking you to visit are quite different from one another; some allow you to query the database while others provide summary reports but do not allow queries. Some states have extensive health-related databases while other states have little information on a website. RESOURCESI am providing you with the web addresses for sample state health information data sources as well as the website for the National Association of Health Data Organizations (NAHDO). The National Association of Health Data Organizations (NAHDO) is a national non-profit membership and educational association dedicated to improving health care data collection and use. NAHDO’s members include state and private health data organizations that maintain statewide health care databases and stakeholders of these databases. I’d suggest that you first visit the NAHDO site to familiarize yourself with this organization and the purpose/function of statewide databases. National Association of Health Data Organizations (NAHDO) Here are some state healthcare data sites that may be of interest. While each provides health related data, each one is different. Please explore each of these sites. • Utah interactive online database: The Utah Department of Health has an on-line interactive database that is available for public use. The URL for Utah ‘s Public Health Data Resource: Pay particular attention to the IBIS database. Note that you can develop custom queries to extract data from the database. • Wisconsin health department database: The Wisconsin Information Center has data that can be used for a variety of purposes. The URL for the some components of the system: Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health – WISHWisconsin Department of Health Services • Minnesota health department database: This database has a focus on healthcare data and statistics and has a wealth of information on its website. The specific web address for birth records, immunizations, nutrition and physical activity. EXPLORATION OF WEBSITES 1. Explore each of the three state databases listed above (UT, WI, MN) as well as an additional database of your choice. You might want to see what your state offers. Google should help you find the necessary website. 2. Respond to the questions or instructions below and submit the assignments in Brightspace. SUMMARY OF ASSIGNMENT (1) After exploring four different state healthcare data sites, construct a table that compares the four healthcare data sites. Address ease of access; usability; quality of data; purpose of the data on the website (e.g. does it primarily provide statistical data? Is it designed to provide a consumer with comparative quality information? Other?); ability to query (a characteristic of a true database as opposed to a data collection system); other characteristics and qualities of this site. (2) Write a paragraph to compare/contrast the state data collection systems/databases that you explored with special focus on the site that you selected.(3) Summarize potential uses of statewide databases for healthcare providers, payers, and consumers. (4) Submit the assignment via Brightspace as one document ASSESSMENT Comparison table and commentary 15 points
HIM 4222 – Unit 2 Assignment: Data Dictionary Purpose: Construct a data dictionary to model a healthcare database collection tool. Background: At the time of discharge, data is collected from patie
Note: This document is view only (no need to request access). To edit/add to this document either: Go to File>Make a Copy, complete task and then add that link to the course. Remember to make it shareable so faculty can read the submission automatically. OR Go to File>Download in another version, complete and then add that link to the course.____________________________________________________________________ HIM 4222 – Unit 2 Assignment: Data Dictionary Purpose: Construct a data dictionary to model a healthcare database collection tool. Background: At the time of discharge, data is collected from patient records to form secondary databases for use in producing indexes (diagnosis, operative, and physician), special registries, quality studies, reports about utilization of facility services, analysis of physician practice patterns, long term planning needs, etc. The data is often collected through an abstracting process which involves extracting specific data elements from the patient’s record and entering the data element on a data collection tool. The data collection tool may be in the form of a paper abstract or an electronic database. Once the data is collected and entered into the system, a variety of reports can be produced based on queries of the database. These reports can take the form of summaries of patient data entered in the system, graphics that illustrate selected data, statistical information, etc. With specialized registries, there may also be a follow-up data collection component in which data about each patient in the registry is collected at designated times (e.g. annually) to update the data in the system to provide information about survival rates, efficacy of treatment, etc. In the past few years the number and variety of specialized registries has increased dramatically. Registries can be operated at any and/or all levels: facility-specific, multiple facilities, state-mandated and national. Some are voluntary; others are required by a governmental unit. For example, participation in a Cancer Registry is usually voluntary but if a hospital decides to maintain a Cancer Registry, it must adhere to standards of the American College of Surgeons. In some states, reporting of cancer data to a state data system is required and an individual facility cancer registry may be a vehicle for collecting the data that is required. At the national level, cancer data is collected, analyzed, researched and published by a number of different organizations such as The American College of Surgeons, the National Cancer DataBase, the SEER Program (a national coordinating group for cancer registries), etc. Because of their background in data collection techniques, HIM professionals are appropriate professionals to be involved in the design of data collection tools for developing databases and specialized registries. One of the important elements of designing a database is identification and definition of the data elements that will be collected. This project is intended to focus attention on the development of databases, data collection and potential uses of aggregate patient data. __________________________________________________________________________ In this assignment, you will be developing a modified data dictionary for a specialized registry/database for a disease or condition described in one of the scenarios below or one of your choosing and approved by the instructor. Select a specialized registry scenario from the list (below) or develop your own scenario for a disease or operative registry. Write 2-3 paragraphs explaining your condition/disease and why this topic was chosen. Based on format and content guidelines for a data dictionary (see readings, slides, supplemental articles), identify a minimum of twelve (12) data elements that you will collect in the selected registry (you may choose to include more than 12). The data elements should include: Demographic data (minimum of six elements) about the patient (e.g. patient DOB). Note: with six elements, you will not capture every important item about patient demographics so you are doing just those that you select as most important (for example, you may want age but not street address). You may want to know the sex if the condition can be different in different sexes (including LGBTQ and more) Clinical data (minimum of six data elements) specific to disease/condition that the registry (e.g. blood sugar lab results for a diabetes registry). This information will come from your research. At least one clinical data element must have a reference range (e.g. lab value, BP, etc.). You will need to do research about your disease process in order to identify lab values, clinical signs/symptoms, etc. in order to identify a data element with a reference range. Identify at least one required government standard (eg Joint Commission, Medicare/Medicaid). Any other data that you deem to be useful (think long term ~ what data elements might help research in 10-20 years). There are no wrong answers – think futuristic. Develop a data dictionary using either a table or spreadsheet and include the following : A title for your data dictionary Name of the data elements/attributes Unique Mnemonic/Identifier for each data element/attributes Description or definition of each data element/attribute Result Type (e.g. numeric, alphabetic, free text, etc.) Description of the attributes of each data element and/or inclusion of any relevant numeric ranges or alpha interpretation (ex: Sex = M, F or U) Size parameters for data field Formatting rules for the data field (ex: Date of discharge = MM/DD/YYYY; field is limited to numerical data) Reference ranges, as appropriate (e.g. Oral temp/Celsius = 36.8-37.3°) Whether attribute is required or optional Use a variety of data types such as alpha, numeric, text, drop downs, multi-selection, etc. Give examples of how your data collection tool (and collected data) could be used in the future. (2-3 paragraphs) A bibliography of resources should be included. The bibliography must include references about the specific disease/condition that you selected for the registry. You might also want to read articles about disease registries, data dictionaries, standards for data items, etc. . The data dictionary may be done in a Word table, Excel spreadsheet or google. Be sure that there is a logical flow to the data elements that are to be entered into the system. The person doing the abstracting of data should follow a logical sequence in extracting the data items from the patient record in order to enter them into the database. For example, all demographic data elements should be placed together. SCENARIOS FOR CLINICAL DATABASES (You may choose one of these or develop your own): Violence-related injuries: trauma/injuries that are the result of a violent act including such things as firearm injuries, domestic about, etc. AIDS/HIV: NOT interested in patient-identifiable data and want to assure that the system protects the confidentiality of the patient but include risk factors present in individuals who contract the disease, associated complications or co-morbid conditions that occur, length of survival and effectiveness of various treatment modalities. Cardiovascular diseases: especially interested in assessing risk factors related to CV disease Premature births in Minnesota and related perinatal morbidity/mortality. Include maternal health factors that could be linked to premature birth (e.g. smoking). Multiple Sclerosis: include genetic and environmental factors that may be linked to the development of MS. Cesarean section including the reason for C-section, the health status of the mother at the time of delivery, associated diagnoses, the condition of the infant at birth including common indicators such as birth weight, APGAR score, medical diagnoses, etc. Motor vehicle accidents (all types of motorized vehicles) that result in injury to an individual with emphasis on types and severity of injuries that result, mortality rates and occurrence of associated debilitating conditions, gender and age data, etc. Diabetes mellitus: emphasis on risk factors, management of diabetes especially personal health and wellness initiatives. Gulf War Veteran medical database tracking associated physical and psychological conditions associated with wartime action. Database should include Gulf War I, Iraqi war, and Afghanistan war veterans. Crohn’s disease registry with focus on risk factors, treatment, and age/gender. Autism registry with focus on risk factors, genetic/familial history, severity of condition. You may also develop your own scenario but it must be approved by the instructor (e.g. birth defects registry, diabetes registry, transplant database, influenza database) A sample data dictionary is also available for your review.
HIM 4222 – Unit 2 Assignment: Data Dictionary Purpose: Construct a data dictionary to model a healthcare database collection tool. Background: At the time of discharge, data is collected from patie
HIM 4222 – More Health care databases (extra credit – 10 points) Purpose: To gain additional knowledge and experience with public databases and become aware of the benefits and power of this kind of data. Care Compare Scroll down and click on the picture of a hospital. Type in your zip code and click Search. Click on the compare button by the facility you wish to compare. Click two or three hospitals and click Compare in the upper, right area of your screen. Notice all the tabs you can look at and compare. Click on the Patient Survey Rating header and read the description of this topic. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent inpatient hospital stay. Scroll down a little and see all the details of what questions are asked, the results and also the national average. What can the consumer learn here? How would this be helpful for the typical consumer? Now go back to the main page: Care Compare At the top/right of the screen, click Providers & Services Click Compare procedure costs. What procedure did you choose and what did you find? Was the tool easy to use? Healthgrades You can find a doctor, dentist or hospital. Scenario: You need a plastic surgeon to fix your index finger that was nearly cut off while cooking dinner last night. Who do you pick? Why? Notice all of the elements that are for the public to see and compare.For example: Experience (where you can even have information on a background check) or patient satisfaction. Why would a consumer be interested in this type of information? How could having this online help/hurt a provider? CDC Wonder What does this site do? Under Wonder Systems>Wonder Online Databases – select Births. Read the introduction to this screen – Where is the information derived from? Select Natality from 2007-2019. Read this screen and select I agree…… Select items from the boxes 1-5 – thinking what would I want to know about births? How many in my state? How many mothers used tobacco while pregnant? How many mothers across all states experienced eclampsia – what age were they? What were the results you found? Once you have results, notice the tabs at the top – Results/Map/Chart. Why would you want to have this visualization option? Under those tabs, see more choices. Click on “Other Data Access” – Wow – look at how much data you can get to! Or this last one: https://www.medicare.gov/procedure-price-lookup/ where you can look up the cost of an upcoming procedure! This is the end of the exploration – I hope you enjoyed the experience.