This exercise will help you practice integrating source material effectively into your writing.
· Review the handouts and submit your responses to each of the four quotes in Handout #2.
· You should respond to at least two other students no later than twenty-four hours after the due date for this assignment. Your responses to your classmates should be thoughtful and engaged. Ask questions of each other; disagree with each other; prompt further conversation with each other. Please do not simply respond with “cheerleading” responses.
Handout #1: Integrating Sources into Your Writing Review the handout below that discusses how and why to use quotes in your writing. (Please scroll down to read handout.)
Handout #2: MLA Quoting Activity Create a sentence for each of the four quotes posted in the handout below that incorporates in-text citations, attributive phrases, and signal verbs. (Please scroll down to read handout.)
Four sentences that adequately integrate the quote.
Please compose your answers in a Word document first so you will not lose your work. Too often, students compose in the discussion board thread for the first time, and too often, a snag online causes lost work. Instead, draft first in a Word document and THEN copy and paste your ideas into the thread.
Full, detailed responses to all prompts will count for 40 out of the 50 points assigned to this discussion board. The other 10 points will be awarded for the thoughtful responses you leave on two classmates’ posts. Extend their responses by providing comments that expand on those ideas by offering your own observations or connections.
· Provide examples for all four quotes according to assignment guidelines (30 points)
· Demonstrates polished writing for the academic community (10 points)
· Includes two engaged peer comments (10 points)
To Submit: You can click the assignment link at the top, or under the Discussion Board tab, find the forum for “Module 5: MLA Quoting Activity Discussion Board.” You will create a thread in this forum. Please put a compelling title in the subject box, and then paste your prompt responses in the thread box. Within twenty-four hours after the due date and time, please respond to two peers by clicking “reply” on their threads and composing your response.
Generally speaking, there are three ways to integrate sources into a research paper – summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting.
SUMMARY – A relatively brief objective account, in your own words, of the main ideas in a source or a source passage.
PARAPHRASE – A restatement, in your own words, of a passage of text. Its structure reflects (but does not copy) the structure of the source passage, and may be roughly the same length as the passage, but does not use exact wording.
QUOTE – Using the exact words of a source.
TIPS FOR USING DIRECT QUOTES
1. Always have a good reason for using a direct quote. Otherwise, paraphrase or summarize.
→ Following are some good reasons to use direct quotes:
· The source author has made a point so clearly and concisely that it can’t be expressed more clearly and concisely.
· A certain phrase or sentence in the source is particularly vivid or striking, or especially typical or representative of some phenomenon you are discussing.
· An important passage is sufficiently difficult, dense, or rich that it requires you to analyze it closely, which in turn requires that the passage be produced so the reader can follow your analysis.
· A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said. This will often be the case when you criticize or disagree with a source; your reader wants to feel sure you aren’t misrepresenting the source aren’t creating a straw man (or woman). And you need to quote enough of the source so the context and meaning are clear.
2. Always make sure you provide an analysis of the quote. Show your readers that you understand how the quote relates to your ideas by analyzing its significance.
3. Do not use quotes as padding. This is related to tips 1, 2 and 3. Very long quotes will require long explanations of their significance. If quotes do not have adequate analysis, readers will feel that you don’t have a grasp on what that quote means, and they also might feel that you are using quotes as “filler” to take up space.
4. Quotes must be woven into your own writing. They must not stand alone. They also should not begin or end paragraphs. You need a topic sentence to introduce a claim, followed by the evidence to support it, and then you should provide an analysis for the evidence and link it back to the main idea in your own words. They must always have in-text citations as well.
HOW TO USE IN-TEXT CITATIONS IN MLA FORMAT
If the quoted or paraphrased material is the first evidence used from a source, then you must introduce the author and the work with an attributive phrase.
Many teenagers fail to see the purpose in learning grammar or in practicing formal English. What they do not realize is what Kristan Cavina states in her book Critical Thinking and Writing: A Developing Writer’s Guide with Readings
: “when you enter the adult world, you are at a distinct disadvantage if you do not speak Standard English” (323).
In the article “A Big Step Toward Universal Coverage,” Marilyn Werber Serafini explains that out of all the people in America that are uninsured, “33 percent are illegal immigrants who are ineligible for federal assistance; the remaining 66 percent of them are Americans” (2).
If the quoted or paraphrased material is the second or third (or fourth) piece of evidence used from that same source, you may simply put the last name and page number in the parenthetical citation at the end, OR you can mention the author’s name again without a formal introduction and just use the page number.
Many teenagers fail to realize that speaking Standard English is necessary to be respected and understood as adults in the workforce; those who speak only in dialect “are at a distinct disadvantage” (Cavina 323).
Serafini also references the Congressional Budget Office, which estimates that Obama’s Affordable Care Act health care reform law will provide coverage to 31 million of the 47 million Americans currently uninsured, making “the percentage of people without insurance drop from the current fifteen percent to five percent . . . two thirds of the way to universal health coverage” (10).
If the quoted or paraphrased material comes from a source without an author, your in-text citation should include the title of the work. If there are no pages listed, then you should include the paragraph number.
It is also worth noting that “surcharges and stringent health targets might wind up endangering those whose health was already at high risk” (“The Smokers’ Surcharge” par. 14).
In his comparison of the United States Supreme Court with many European systems, Swartz indicates that “dissent is nonexistent or vanishingly rare and often considered a violation of the oath of judicial office” (par. 5).
USING SIGNAL VERBS
When integrating quotes, choose your introductory or signal verb carefully. They allow the readers to make connections to the material by providing context.
If you want to use a neutral verb, try using these: writes, says, states, observes, suggests, remarks, etc.
If you want to convey and attitude or emotion try using verbs such as laments, protests, charges, replies, admits, claims, etc.
Additional Signal Verbs
Handout #2: MLA Quoting Activity
Directions: I have already given you the information you need in the citations below. Follow the instructions for each one and integrate each quotation from the sources listed below. Use the Integrating Source Material handout for a reference.
Newell, Peter, and Matthew Paterson. Climate Capitalism: Global Warming and the
Transformation of the Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print.
1. Use ALL of the following quote from page 15 this book in a sentence WITH an attributive phrase AND an in-text citation:
“One recent study found that in 2005 China emitted 1.7 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from its export-related sectors, 33% of the national total.”
Rochman, Sue. “Time for a Mental Health Checkup?” HIV Plus Nov. 2009: 43. Print.
2. Use all OR part of the following quote from the article on page 43 of the magazine in
a sentence WITH an attributive phrase AND an in-text citation.
“A study led by Susan Cochran, an epidemiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles’s School of Public Heath, has found that gay HIV positive men are up to eight times as likely as heterosexual men to report having mental health problems.”
Sullivan, Laura. “Government’s Empty Buildings Are Costing Taxpayers Billions.” NPR.org, 12 Mar.
2014. Web. 23 Sept. 2014.
3. Use PART of the following quote from this web article in a sentence WITHOUT an attributive phrase and WITH an in-text citation (note: not giving an attributive phrase changes what you must put in the in-text citation):
“But Carper says that even when an agency knows it has a building it would like to sell, bureaucratic hurdles limit it from doing so. No federal agency can sell anything unless it’s uncontaminated, asbestos-free and environmentally safe. Those are expensive fixes.”
Ferguson, Christopher. “The Good, The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and
Negative Effects of Violent Video.” Psychiatric Quarterly 78.4 (2007): 309-16. Web. 23 Sept.
4. Use all OR part of the following quote from page 310 of this article in a sentence
WITH a signal phrase and WITH an in-text citation:
“Thus, any correlational relationship between violent video games and violent criminal activity may simply be a byproduct of family violence.”